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How is the PHI Multivariate Prostate Health Index Analyzed?

Study Overview

For early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), several clinical and laboratory markers are widely used: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA (fPSA), fPSA / total PSA ratio, and others. These indicators, however, are not specific, do not have the necessary level of sensitivity to prostate cancer and cannot be used as unambiguous criteria for selecting patients for a prostate biopsy, which explains the need to find new methods for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, a new calculated indicator of prostate cancer risk has been introduced into clinical practice - the prostate health index, phi (from the English Prostate Health Index).

When calculating phi, three indicators are taken into account: total PSA, free PSA and -2 proPSA. Total PSA is a serine protease secreted by the epithelium of the prostate into the seminal fluid and into the blood in a small amount. An increase in the level of total PSA above the threshold value (4 ng / ml) makes it possible to suspect prostate cancer, but it can also be observed in other conditions (benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, after massage and prostate biopsy, etc.). The main amount of PSA is present in the blood in the form associated with protease inhibitors. Up to 35% of total PSA is free of non-protein related PSA. It was shown that in patients with prostate cancer, the normal ratio of bound and free PSA changes, while the proportion of f PSA decreases. Although the fPSA study helps in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign diseases, this marker is also not specific to prostate cancer. Free PSA is a protein complex consisting of various isoforms of the enzyme characteristic of both prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. -2 proPSA is used as the third indicator in the calculation of phi. Unlike general and free PSA, it is a tumor marker that is characteristic of prostate cancer and is atypical for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Different areas of the prostate gland are characterized by varying degrees of secretion of serine protease proenzyme isoforms (proPSA). -2 proPSA is one of the proPSA isoforms, which predominates in the peripheral parts of the prostate and is the main isoform found in prostate cancer. This is a glycoprotein that is formed from proPSA by cleaving a short sequence of amino acids. A feature of -2 proPSA is its resistance to trypsin and kallikrein-2. The clinical significance of other proPSA isoforms found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer (-1, -4, -5 -7 pPSA) is unclear.

The -2 proPSA study is used in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign diseases. Its level can be used as an additional diagnostic criterion when examining men with a PSA result in the range of 2.0-10.0 ng / ml and a normal result of a digital rectal examination. However, the greatest diagnostic benefit is achieved by combining -2 proPSA, as well as total and free PSA in the phi index.

There is a direct correlation between the phi value and the risk of prostate cancer. So, the probability of prostate cancer in patients with phi less than 25.0 is 11%, and with phi - more than 55-52.1%. This dependence is demonstrated in all age groups and does not depend on the volume of the prostate. The specificity of phi with respect to prostate cancer exceeds that of total PSA, free PSA, and the ratio fPSA / total PSA.In addition, there is a relationship between phi and aggressiveness of prostate cancer: large phi values ​​correspond to the Gleason score of 7 or more. Based on the revealed patterns, it was concluded that the phi index can be used as a screening method for diagnosing prostate cancer in a group of patients over the age of 50 who have a PSA of 2-10 ng / ml and a normal result of a digital rectal examination. The phi result should be interpreted taking into account additional clinical, laboratory and instrumental data.

It is important to note that when calculating phi, three parameters are used, each of which must be obtained in the same laboratory. Concentrations of -2 proPSA, PSA and fPSA depend on what standards were used to calibrate the tests, and the values ​​obtained from tests from different manufacturers are not interchangeable. This study uses original Hybritech Tandem ™ -R calibrators.

What is the study used for?

  • For the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate diseases (BPH).

When is the study scheduled?

  • When examining a man over the age of 50 years, whose PSA is in the range of 2-10 ng / ml and the normal result of a digital rectal examination.

What is PHI Analysis?

Analysis for the prostate health index - a comprehensive examination of blood for cancer markers. It gives 2.5 times more accurate results than PSA.

The first stages of the oncological processes of the prostate are often asymptomatic, so men rarely conduct an examination without feeling symptoms. Later stages of prostate cancer are quite aggressive and life-threatening. Therefore, it is advisable to identify the initial stages.

A PSA test is considered the traditional method for screening for prostate cancer. Unfortunately, often he and instrumental analyzes are not accurate enough to make a diagnosis, as a result of which a biopsy is prescribed. The health index of the prostate gland allows you to avoid the need for its performance with PSA indicators, which cannot be interpreted unambiguously and require it. According to statistics, about 75% of biopsy procedures after PSA give negative results for cancer, but lead to excessive anxiety of the patient.

Prostate Health Index - a comprehensive study of tumor markers with the most detailed indicators. It is calculated with PSA values ​​from 4 to 10 ng / ml, which indicate the presence of pathology, but do not give a clear picture. For this, 3 indicators of prostate-specific antigen are used - total, free and -2proPSA.

When conducting PSA, its level can be increased due to various pathologies, for example, prostatitis and adenomas, while the Prostate Health Index indicates only malignant tumors.

Due to its high practical efficiency and accuracy, the multi-factor PHI index is recognized as the most significant and minimally invasive method for diagnosing prostate cancer. It has already become widespread in the world and is gradually becoming the main method of examination.

What is the prostate health index?

The value is usually compared with the norm. An increase in the prostate health index indicates the occurrence of any pathologies. In addition to oncology, the diagnostic method allows you to determine:

  • chronic prostatitis
  • acute prostatitis
  • prostate adenoma.

Assessment of prostate health is done by examining PSA levels in blood plasma. Unlike conventional analyzes, the PHI method involves the study of three components at once - total and free PSA in blood plasma, as well as a value of -2 proPSA.

There is a special formula by which the prostate health index is calculated. For this, it is necessary to subtract the value of free PSA from the obtained value of -2 proPSA and multiply by the square root extracted from the total PSA value obtained in the analysis.Thus, knowing these three values ​​that are given in the results of the analysis, the prostate health index can be calculated independently.

The prostate health index is calculated by the formula

Who is shown PHI analysis

An analysis of the health index for prostate cancer is indicated for the following symptoms:

  • pain in the groin and perineum,
  • painful urination, frequent urges, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder,
  • the presence of blood in urine or semen,
  • sexual dysfunctions, problems with erection,
  • pain during ejaculation,
  • if an organ enlargement is detected during instrumental examinations or palpation,
  • men in the process of treating prostate cancer or after it to control relapse.

The risk group includes:

  1. Men over 40 years old are shown an annual PSA or Prostate Health Index screening.
  2. The next of kin (brothers and sons) of people who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer.
  3. People with malnutrition (high in fatty meat products and low in fruits and vegetables).
  4. Overweight people.
  5. Addicted to nicotine or alcohol.

Timely diagnosis is the key to survival

The prostate is a gland the size of a walnut, located below the bladder and in front of the rectum, is key to the effectiveness of male sexual function and the control of urination. With age, prostate cells undergo changes in shape and size, which can be a precursor to cancer.

The first symptoms of prostate cancer may be mild and not too annoying. Unfortunately, men are reluctant to acknowledge the threat of cancer.

They prefer to ignore them, and often turn to a specialist at the last moment, when it is too late for treatment.

In most cases detected, prostate cancer progresses very slowly, but aggressive forms of the disease can become life-threatening, spreading to the bone marrow and other organs. Early detection of aggressive types of cancerous tumors is the key to survival, so timely diagnosis is very important.

What is the prostate health index (PHI): what is assigned and what will it tell

Prostate cancer (PCa) after lung cancer is recognized as one of the most common types of cancer in men.

To prevent it, progressive diagnostic methods appear, among which the Prostate Health Index is recognized as the most accurate and reliable.

The PHI Prostate Health Index is a blood test that provides a 2.5 times more accurate diagnosis than the most popular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test.

Thanks to proven effectiveness in practice, the PHI test in a relatively short time has become widespread throughout the world. The result of the analysis is aimed at helping the doctor distinguish between physiological and pathological conditions, which require further diagnosis - prostate biopsy.

Prostate Health Index (PHI)

Currently, there are two methods for diagnosing such serious male diseases as prostate cancer, prostatitis and adenoma.

  1. General PSA Test. It is aimed at identifying a specific prostatic antigen, which is produced in small quantities in the cells of the prostate gland. Many experts now recognize this diagnostic method as ineffective.
  2. Determination of prostate health index (PHI). This analysis gives more accurate results and allows doctors to make timely decisions aimed at combating diseases. With the use of this diagnostic method, the effectiveness of treatment is increased, and the likelihood of deaths with the development of malignant neoplasms is significantly reduced.

In this article, we will talk in detail about the prostate health index and the diagnostic procedure aimed at determining it.

Preparing for PHI Analysis

Preparation for analysis for the prostate health index includes the same points as for the PSA test:

  1. Usually, a test is scheduled in the morning, because the results may vary slightly over the course of the day.
  2. Blood sampling is performed on an empty stomach, food intake is prohibited 8-12 hours before it. 2 days before this, you should switch to diet food.
  3. Refusal of coffee, alcohol and tobacco products in 2 days. If it is impossible to quit smoking, you should refrain at least for 2-3 hours before taking blood.
  4. PHI analysis requires 2 days of abstinence from sexual intercourse.
  5. The day before blood donation, you need to refrain from physical and emotional stress, as well as hypothermia, baths and saunas.
  6. 2 weeks before the examination for PHI, any effects on the prostate should be discarded, including TRUS, palpation and massage.
  7. The analysis is taken no earlier than a month after the biopsy and 6 months with urethral resection.

Anxiety symptoms

Prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic in the early stages.

Symptoms in the late stages of the disease may include one or more of the following:

  1. Problems with urination, including difficulties in the initial stage of the process, weak urinary flow, the need for frequent urination, especially at night.
  2. The presence of blood in the urine.
  3. Painful urination or ejaculation.
  4. The difficulty of achieving or maintaining an erection.
  5. Pain in bones, often in the spine, pelvis, or ribs.
  6. Weakness in the legs and incontinence of urine or feces (if the cancer has spread to the spine and presses on the spinal cord).

If you notice the characteristic symptoms of prostate cancer, you should immediately contact a urologist. Treatment of this type of oncology is effective only with the early detection of the disease.

Indications for analysis

PHI analysis is mandatory for all men who have crossed the age threshold of 40 years, even if they are not bothered by anything, and they do not indicate any deviations in the functioning of the genital and urine systems. At an earlier age, the indications for the diagnosis of prostate index in men are

  1. discomfort or any violation of bowel movements, urination,
  2. patient complaints of pelvic pain,
  3. fullness in the rectum or anus,
  4. decrease or deterioration in the quality of potency.

The appointment of the analysis takes into account not only the complaints of the man and his state of health, but also the so-called family history - the presence or absence of relatives who were diagnosed with any type of cancer.

The analysis can be prescribed both before the biopsy and after it, if the medical specialist who oversees the patient has any doubts or suspicions. Men should understand that neglecting the recommendations of doctors to do an analysis to determine the PHI prostate health index can lead to serious consequences - the moment of development of prostatitis, adenoma or cancer of the most important body system will be missed.

This method of diagnosing male oncological diseases is available, it can be done on your own initiative for a fee in a private clinic, or free of charge, in a state medical institution, in the direction of your doctor. Missing the opportunity to diagnose cancer at an early stage is simply silly.

Passing PHI Analysis

For analysis, a patient needs to take blood from a vein, a small volume is needed, from 5 to 10 ml. Most often, the procedure is prescribed in the morning, before its implementation it is forbidden to eat food and any drinks, except for a small amount of still water.

Usually the patient is placed on a stool, but if he expresses anxiety or complains of dizziness, the procedure can be carried out in a prone position.

The PHI test does not require a long decryption of the results, they are usually ready in a day.

Men at risk

Although the exact cause of prostate cancer is still unknown, possible risk factors include:

  1. Age: the risk of oncology increases rapidly after reaching 50 years, about 60% of cases occur in the age group over 65 years.
  2. Race / Ethnicity: The disease is more common in men of African descent.
  3. Heredity: the risk is doubled in men whose father / brother is sick with prostate cancer, and much higher if there are several relatives who have the disease.
  4. Malnutrition: A diet with a high percentage of red meat or a low content of fruits and vegetables, as well as excessive consumption of fatty dairy products.
  5. The use of substandard products: A malignant tumor may be caused by certain pigments and preservatives found in food.
  6. Obesity: increases the likelihood of a more aggressive form of prostate cancer.
  7. Smoking, drugs and alcohol: are stimulating factors for the development of an aggressive form of cancer.
  8. Strong and frequent x-ray exposure.
  9. Impact Agent orange.

People taking statin drugs (for cholesterol) are less likely to suffer from prostate cancer than healthy men. This is because cholesterol is the chemical material from which the body produces testosterone.

Accordingly, the less fat we consume, the more difficult it is for the body to produce excessive amounts of hormones that provoke the occurrence of malignant tumors.

Interpretation of results and norms of PHI analysis

There is no norm PHI as such, even with minimal values ​​there is a probable risk of developing cancer processes. The following table is used to decrypt the results:

  • PHI from 0 to 27 - 9.8% chance of oncology,
  • from 27 to 36 - 16.8%,
  • from 36 to 55 - 33.3%,
  • above 55 - 50.1%.

The higher the PHI value, the more likely a referral to a biopsy will be performed that will already confirm or deny the presence of prostate cancer.

How PHI is determined

Before calculating the PHI index, studies are carried out that determine the following indicators.

  • General PSA (PSA total.).
  • Free PSA (PSA free).
  • -2pro-PSA (-2proPSA).

After receiving the results of laboratory tests, doctors calculate the prostate health index (PHI) using the following formula.

What is testing for?

PSA testing (PSA, prostate-specific antigen) is one of the most common early detection methods for prostate cancer. A cancerous tumor causes changes in the structure of the prostate gland, which can lead to an active “leakage” of PSA into the bloodstream. Elevated antigen levels can also be caused by non-malignant neoplasms, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

It means that PSA test often suspects prostate cancerwhen it’s not really there. He also detects a large number of indolent tumors (slowly growing)which, if left untouched, may not have any negative consequences for the body for many years.

Recent studies in the US show that many men may have prostate cancer, despite low PSA levels. A study in which 2950 men from the placebo group with normal PSA took part showed that this type of cancer was diagnosed in 10% and 17% of patients with PSA

Increased PSA as a marker of prostate health

PSA is a prostate-specific antigen that is released into the blood only when the prostate gland is disturbed.

The older the man, the higher the acceptable PSA in the blood. This is due to an increase in the organ at an older age against the background of hormonal changes. PSA allows you to determine prostatitis, prostate adenoma and malignant processes in the organ.

With an increase in PSA to 6, there are suspicions of prostatitis. Nevertheless, the analysis gives only a rough estimate, therefore, it is possible to accurately identify inflammation and its type using other examinations, but not a blood test.

PSA values ​​over 10 units indicate benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as adenoma. This disease is presumably hormonal in nature and is due to the high level of dihydrotestosterone, which is absorbed by the tissues of the prostate. Prostate adenoma is accompanied by impaired urination as a result of an increase in organ size.

Multiple excesses of the PSA norm indicate a malignant process in the tissues of the prostate gland. An antigen level of over 100 units is a metastatic prostate cancer.

PSA analysis is recommended to be taken annually to all men over 40 years old. Changes in the level of this antigen can promptly suspect the onset of the pathological process and stop it in time.

Men who have had a family history of prostate cancer are advised to have a regular blood test starting at the age of thirty.

Prostate-specific antigen enters the blood only with prostate pathologies

Procedure

To determine the prostate health index, medical professionals need a man’s blood serum. For this, venous blood is sampled in the generally accepted way, using a medical tourniquet and a disposable syringe. The biomaterial obtained by the classical method is placed in a test tube with a special gel, which allows you to separate the serum from the total mass.

As a rule, venous blood sampling for determining the prostate health index is carried out in the morning, but not because of fluctuations in the level of prostate specific antibodies, but in order to make patients as comfortable as possible to observe the rules of preparation for analysis. Immediately after blood donation from a vein, a man can resume taking medications, return to his usual lifestyle, not change the schedule of the day and not take a sick leave.

The prostate health index is calculated according to the three main indicators of PSA, which are obtained by the level of prostate specific antibodies in venous blood. The attending physician studies the results of the tests, chooses the tactics of treatment or prescribes additional biological, instrumental studies.

If the obtained data indicate that the patient is not predisposed to prostate cancer, they do not undergo further medical examination, or are referred to a specialist in a different direction, according to indications.

What symptoms are diagnosed with

The determination of the prostate health index is prescribed for suspected:

  • prostate cancer
  • acute prostatitis
  • chronic prostatitis
  • benign hyperplasia.

With the development of these diseases, the following symptoms are observed.

  • Periodic or persistent pelvic pain.
  • Urination disorders.
  • The presence of blood in the urine.
  • Feeling of fullness in the rectum.
  • Discomfort during bowel movements.
  • Potency problems.
  • Pain during ejaculation.

What will he talk about?

The PHI test can help assess the current risks of a prostate cancer and determine individually for each patient the need for a biopsy.

The determining factor is the interpretation of the PHI value (with a total PSA of 2-10 ng / ml):

  • less than 23 - speaks about benign processes,
  • from 23 to 45 - indicates the average probability of the disease,
  • more than 45 - indicates a high risk of oncology.

As medical practice shows, men with a low PHI in most cases do not need to undergo a biopsy procedure. For them, a re-examination is usually scheduled after a year.

In the last two cases, the probability of confirming the fact of prostate cancer through histological examination is 21% and 44%, respectively.

In addition, the biological age of the patient should be taken into account (PSA is increasing), as well as possible concomitant diseases and the consequences of their treatment. In any case, only a consultation with a doctor will correctly assess your results and predict the risks.

Indications for PHI Analysis

Prostate health index tests are prescribed to all men older than 40, without exception, even in the absence of complaints. Since the analysis is carried out quickly, painlessly and does not require special preparation, it will not be difficult to pass it. The only drawback of the examination is the cost of analyzing the prostate health index or PHI, which in private laboratories costs from 7 thousand rubles.

A blood test to determine the prostate health index is prescribed if there are the following complaints:

  • pelvic pain
  • feeling of fullness in the rectum,
  • discomfort during bowel movements,
  • urination disorders
  • decreased potency.

These symptoms are characteristic of prostatitis, adenoma and the initial stage of oncology. A factor determining the appointment of a blood test is the patient's age and family history. If a man’s closest relatives had prostate cancer, the urologist will necessarily send for analysis, since a preliminary assessment of the prostate health index can reveal cancer at a pre-asymptomatic stage of oncology development.

A blood test for the prostate health index is prescribed for all older men. At the same time, the presence of complaints at the age of 40 can serve as a reason for referral to the laboratory, but at the same time, an elderly man who does not have problems with the genitourinary system, the doctor can prescribe an analysis for a general PSA.

Analysis for PSA is recommended to be taken periodically to all men

Deciphering the results of the prostate health index

If a man is prescribed such a medical test, then he is advised to familiarize himself with what indicators are indicated in the final description, and what should be their norms, and be able to decipher them. The risk of developing prostate cancer is determined by the table of values, which indicates the norms for each age group:

  1. younger than 20 years - free PSA not higher than 0.3, total to 0.6,
  2. 20-30 years - 0.4 and 0.7 ng / ml,
  3. Up to 45 years old - 0.5 and 1.9,
  4. 50-55 years old - 0.7-2.1 and 1.1-3.3,
  5. 55-70 years old - below 3.3 and below 4.5,
  6. over 70 - a maximum of 3.4 and 6.5.

If the results of the prostate health index indicate indicators below the norm or close to it, then the risk of developing oncology and the predisposition to it are minimal, and the patient has nothing to worry about, and the symptoms that caused the appointment of the analysis indicate a different type of problems with the body.

It is important to understand that the doctor’s recommendation to be diagnosed with a prostate health index must be followed. The analysis will allow to identify a disease that is terrible for a man, dangerous for his life and family happiness, at an early stage, successfully cure him and prevent relapse, complications.

The practical benefits of determining the PHI to invasive diagnostic procedures

The PHI index is 3 times better for prostate cancer detection. With PHI readings in hand, the attending physician decides with greater certainty how necessary a biopsy is. After determining the prostate health index (PHI), 1 out of 3 men can avoid a biopsy.

This eliminates such possible complications of invasive intervention as:

  • various infections
  • fever,
  • severe pain
  • bleeding
  • problems with urination.

Can prostate cancer be defeated?

Remember that detected at a very early stage with a PHI test, prostate cancer can be successfully defeated.

It is very important to follow the advice of your medical curator, which may include other diagnostic tests or a diet and lifestyle changes that help reduce the risk of PCa formation and progression.

Tell your friends and relatives who have reached “critical age” about a new diagnostic method. After all, the incidence of prostate cancer (currently about 214 cases per 1000 people) has a moderate upward trend, associated with an aging population, especially in more developed countries.

Who is assigned the analysis?

A PHI study is prescribed by a urologist, dermatovenerologist or general practitioner and is usually recommended for men with a serum PSA level of 2-10 ng / ml, for which there are no additional abnormalities in a digital rectal examination.

Considering that the diseases in the world are very “younger”, for prevention it is worthwhile to undergo this examination for all men after reaching the age of 40 in order to diagnose possible prostate diseases in the early stages.

Monitoring the Prostate Health Index is recommended:

  1. With a decrease in potency, violations of the genitourinary system, the appearance of pain in the groin, scrotum and pelvis.
  2. If a malignant tumor is suspected, what may be indicated: an increase in the size of the prostate gland, a change in its density or consistency.
  3. Patients cured of prostate cancer as part of a periodic examination to ensure the effectiveness and irreversibility of the processes after antitumor therapy.

The need for preventive examinations

For preventive purposes, it is recommended to monitor the PHI index for all men older than 40 years. Particular attention should be given to prevention at men at risk. We list the negative factors that can provoke the development of serious diseases.

  • Racial / Ethnicity. In men of African descent, prostate cancer and other of the above diseases are more common.
  • Heredity. If one or more relatives have male illnesses, the risk level increases.
  • Age. Oncology is more common in older men. 60% of cases occur in the age group over 65 years.
  • Exposure to Agent Orange. This chemical causes serious damage to the body.
  • Bad habits. Stimulate the development of an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
  • Obesity. In the sufferers of the stronger sex, the above diseases are more common.
  • Strong and frequent x-ray exposure. It also increases the risks of developing serious diseases of the genitourinary system.
  • Improper nutrition. To reduce the risk of male diseases, you should abandon the excessive consumption of red meat and fatty dairy products. But the number of fruits and vegetables needs to be increased.

How to prepare for the examination

The test results are greatly influenced by proper preparation.

In addition to the usual recommendations for venous blood donation, you should refuse:

  1. Eating fatty foods - during the day before the test.
  2. Physical and emotional stress - half an hour before analysis.
  3. Smoking - 30 minutes before testing.

Normative guidelines

We indicate PSA norms for men of different ages.

  • From 70 years and older - up to 6.5 ng / ml.
  • From 60 to 70 years - up to 4.5 ng / ml.
  • From 50 to 60 years - up to 3.5 ng / ml.
  • From 40 to 50 years - up to 2.5 ng / ml.

After recalculation of indicators on the prostate health index, the numbers look like this.

Prostate Health Index (PHI)The risks
Up to 23Talks about benign processes
23 to 45The likelihood of developing prostate cancer is average
Above 45High probability of oncology

Prostate and Cancer Health Index

A PSA blood test can be given to patients with diagnosed cancer. The goal of assessing prostate health in this case is to monitor the progression of cancer progression.

The analysis can be prescribed after the first biopsy, if the histological analysis did not show the presence of cancer cells, but the doctor has every reason to believe the development of oncology in men.In this case, a blood test to determine the PHI is an alternative to a second biopsy.

A blood test is performed 3-4 months after the first biopsy. If the values ​​have not changed, expectant management is practiced with regular examination of the patient every three months. With an increase in PSA levels, a decision is made to conduct a second biopsy. If histological analysis reveals cancer cells, it is necessary to perform an operation to remove the malignant neoplasm, followed by a course of chemo- or radiation therapy.

Older men who have contraindications for surgery or chemotherapy may be prescribed medication or hormone therapy. To monitor the dynamics of growth of a malignant tumor, it is necessary to pass a comprehensive analysis of PSA several months after the start of treatment.

It is important to understand that timely detected prostate cancer is successfully treated, guaranteeing the man another 10 years of full life, and in some cases more. Timely examination allows you to quickly take the necessary therapeutic measures that can save a man not only the prostate, but also life. Despite the fact that with adenoma and prostatitis, the prostate health index refers to uninformative examinations, it is recommended to take this analysis at least once a year to exclude oncology.

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What if the analysis showed a result above the norm?

If the analysis showed that the prostate health index is different from the norm and doctors confirm the presence of prostatitis or another male disease, the Smart-Prost device will help reduce the severity of symptoms. The device is recommended for use in acute and chronic stages of prostatitis and, thanks to four types of exposure, increases the effectiveness of drug therapy by 42%. You can familiarize yourself with the device on the main page.

Prostate Health Index: What Does It Mean?

A PHI or prostate health index is a set of tests to give a preliminary assessment of the functionality of the prostate gland. The introduction of this analysis is due to the increased incidence of prostate cancer among older men. The analysis is based on a change in the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood.

Causes of increased PSA levels in the blood

There may be several reasons for this:

  • adenoma or prostatic hyperplasia, that is, an increase in its size. These deviations increase the release of PSA, due to which the protein can easily enter the bloodstream,
  • with inflammation of the prostate, blockages in the ducts through which the protein is excreted from the body can occur. In this case, there is also the possibility of protein entering the bloodstream,
  • violation of the integrity of the tissues of the prostate gland as a result of trauma can also cause the detection of PSA protein in the blood,
  • malignant neoplasms, due to which tumor cells begin to actively divide in the antigen.

An enlarged prostate increases PSA excretion!

Phi blood test

Phi analysis today is one of the most effective methods for diagnosing prostate cancer. As mentioned above, in malignant tumors, tumor cells are activated in the PSA protein and begin to be intensively synthesized in it, as a result of which the protein enters the bloodstream. Thus, the phi test helps detect the presence of cancer in the prostate gland in men. This test gives a picture based on the following indicators:

  • PSA (specific antigen) is common,
  • PSA (specific antigen) is free, by which the free PSA index is generally determined,
  • -2 about PSA, whose growth may indicate the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the prostate gland,
  • PSA free / PSA total,
  • prostate health index - phi.

Who needs a prostate health index test?

If a man went to a doctor with suspected prostate diseases, he must be prescribed a blood test - phi prostate health index due to the fact that chronic inflammation of the prostate, such as adenoma and prostatic hyperplasia, often go to the cancer stage. Also, such a blood test is recommended to be carried out:

  • men over the age of forty to exclude or determine the presence of prostate diseases,
  • if men have symptoms such as difficulty urinating, decreased potency, pain in the groin and pelvis, or in the scrotum,
  • if an enlargement of the prostate gland is detected upon palpation or during ultrasound examination,
  • with periodic examinations of male health,
  • if a biopsy is prescribed. Determining the value of the totality of all PSA indicators often avoids carrying out this rather dangerous procedure if such a value turns out to be low.

Phi preventive study

Young men rarely suffer from prostate diseases. If they develop such diseases, then, usually, in an acute form, which is quite quickly and easily cured. But those men who have a chronic form of these diseases are at risk of complications, which from time to time turn into a cancerous form. In order to detect a malignant tumor in time and start timely treatment, an analysis is prescribed for the prostate health index. The sooner you start treatment, the more chances there are for a man to recover and return to his normal life.

How to prepare for a phi blood test

Usually, all blood tests are taken in the morning, before eating. To ensure that the result is as accurate as possible, it is recommended that the following conditions be met before analysis on phi:

  • refrain from eating, do not drink any drinks other than water without gas,
  • for some time (5-7 days) before the study, exclude the release of sperm,
  • three days before the analysis, it is recommended to have a deep prostate massage,
  • if a biopsy has taken place, then blood donation must be postponed for a month.

The specialist will tell you what you can do and what cannot be done after you have appointed the procedure.

Prostate health index: what is it, how to determine the value of indicators

Prostate cancer can be diagnosed not only in older men, but also in 35–40-year-olds - this is indicated by WHO statistics. It was these data that made it more active to use a special diagnostic technique for diagnostic purposes - the prostate health index PHI. In the Russian Federation, the procedure is mandatory when a man reaches a certain age, usually after 40 years, but if there is evidence, then the analysis can be assigned earlier (at 30-35 years).

Prostate health index in men of different ages

The norm PSA in the blood for all representatives of the stronger sex is considered - 0 - 4.0 ng per milliliter. However:

  • in men aged 40-49 years, this value should not be more than 2.5 ng / ml,
  • for men aged 50-59, the norm is below 3.5 ng / ml,
  • for the age category from 60 to 69 years - PSA should not exceed 4.5 ng / ml,
  • older than 70 years - not higher than 6.5 ng / ml.

If the value of at least one of the three PSA above is abnormal, then this indicates the presence of pathological processes of the prostate gland.

Prostate health index phi. What it is?

Before you start talking about the phi prostate health index, you need to figure out what exactly is a health index?

So, the health index is an indicator of the general state of human health.This index makes it possible to determine how well and harmoniously the functionality of all the internal organs of a person is implemented.

When there are any violations in the work of an organ, the results begin to deviate from the norm.

If deviations from the indicators are detected, complex treatment is prescribed, as a result of which the values ​​of this index either change, both for the better and for the worse, or remain unchanged.
The phi prostate health index is a set of maximally advanced indicators that combines the values ​​of the three main markers of blood serum:

These indicators are determined using a modern and fully automatic analyzer.

This phi prostate health index has special sensitivity and specificity during the detection of prostate cancer, including its complicated and potentially lethal forms. This is due to the presence of the 2-pro PSA marker, which is able to concentrate in areas of the internal organ that are susceptible to cancer.

Phi testing is currently the most important method for diagnosing prostate cancer.

As a result of the analysis, the doctor is provided with a result that includes several main indicators:

  • general PSA results,
  • the result of free PSA, which makes it possible to calculate the index of the share of free PSA in total,
  • 2-pro PSA result, an increase of which indicates the possible progression of prostate cancer,
  • prostate health index indicators.

Depending on the results obtained, the risk of complicating the disease is determined:

  • low value - low risk of development,
  • increased value - indicates the need for a biopsy of the prostate gland.

The final decision on further therapy is determined by the attending physician after receiving all the necessary information about the patient and all associated indicators.

Who is prescribed a phi prostate health index blood test?

Very often, a phi test is prescribed for men over 40, since at this age the risk of various deviations of the prostate gland increases significantly.

The abbreviation PSA itself refers to a laboratory study that makes it possible to identify the General Prostate Specific Antigen.

This procedure is prescribed in several cases:

  • approaching age to 40 years,
  • at the time of detection of inflammatory processes in the prostate,
  • when injured
  • suspicions of a specialist after probing this body,

After conducting a blood test, phi prostate health indices may vary.

If the level is elevated, then the patient may subsequently be identified:

  • infection after examination of urine and blood tests,
  • an increase and further proliferation of tissues related to the prostate gland, benign lesions are possible,
  • malignant tumors

Note that the results of this study can reveal the general picture of the patient's condition. For this reason, in special research laboratories, a special method has been developed that can more accurately describe the condition of the patient - the prostate health index phi.

As a result of this examination, the need or its absence in the implementation of a biopsy, which is far from a safe and painless research method, is revealed.

How to prepare for the PSA test?

To carry out this study, a person needs special training in order to avoid re-conducting due to inaccurate results.

The preparation process itself includes:

  • abstinence from the release of seminal fluid for several days before the procedure,
  • the analysis is recommended to be performed approximately 3 days after a deep massage of the prostate,
  • when conducting transurethral resection, testing is recommended to be postponed for at least six months,
  • after a biopsy, it is better to refuse the analysis for about a week.

All the main points of preparation are determined by the attending physician.

Normal PSA Health Index Levels in Men of Different Ages

Many patients often wonder after obtaining the results of a health index, how to calculate the risk of the onset and development of an ailment?

The optimal indicator of the concentration of antigen for any age in men is considered to be 0-0.4 ng per milliliter.

However, there are other norms, depending on the age category of patients:

  • 40–49 years - indicators should not be higher than 2.5 ng / ml,
  • 50–59 years - a concentration of 3.5 ng / ml is considered the norm,
  • 60–69 years old - 4.5 ng / ml,
  • 70 years and older - up to 6.5 ng / ml.

For diagnosis, it is important to take into account not only the general indicators of antigens, but also the indicators of free and bound PSA. Deviation from the normal indicators of at least one of them indicates impaired functionality of the prostate gland.

Prostate Cancer: Available About Diagnosis, Risk Factors, and Statistics

The prostate is a small gland, part of the male reproductive system. It produces prostate secretion, which is part of the seminal fluid. The prostate gland is located directly under the bladder, in shape and size resembles a walnut. It can increase with age. Through it passes the urethra - the urethra. Only men have a prostate, therefore prostate cancer is also found only in men.

According to statistics from the U.S. National Institute of Oncology, prostate cancer is the third most common and accounts for 9.5% of all new registered cases of cancer in America in 2018. Most often (in almost 40% of cases), it is diagnosed in men aged 65 to 74 years.

Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that most men die of other causes before the disease becomes clinically advanced.

The survival of men with prostate cancer is associated with many factors, especially with the prevalence of the tumor during diagnosis. So, 100% of men will live 5 years or more with cancer that has not gone beyond the prostate.

Main symptoms

  • difficulty urinating: frequent (more than seven times a day) and / or painful urination,
  • blood in urine or semen
  • difficult erection
  • pain in the lower back, hips, bones.

There are several types of prostate cancer, but the most common is adenocarcinoma, which develops from gland cells. Other, rarer types of prostate cancer include: sarcomas, small cell cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, and transitional cell carcinoma.

Diagnostics

Most cases of prostate cancer in the early stages are detected by a blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) or rectal examination.

There is no consensus on the benefits of prostate cancer screening, as its results may lead to overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

However, to discuss the possibility of screening with your doctor should:

  • men older than 50 years in the middle risk group,
  • men over 45 at high risk. For example, if a man’s close relative has been diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 65,
  • men under 40 in a very high risk group. If several relatives have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at a young age.

In this case, the doctor should clearly explain the entire sequence of actions that await the person during the diagnosis.

PSA blood test

A prostatic specific antigen or PSA is a protein produced by both healthy and affected prostate cells.Previously, a PSA score of 4.0 ng / ml or lower was considered normal for a healthy man. However, additional studies have shown that the level of PSA in the blood depends on many factors and can vary in the same man.

There have been cases when prostate cancer developed in men with PSA below 4. And, conversely, an increased PSA result does not always mean the presence of cancer.

The presence of a urinary tract infection or prostatitis raises the level of PSA in the blood. In addition, some drugs underestimate it. These include finasteride and dutasteride, intended for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Cons PSA Testing

Testing blood for PSA levels often gives a false positive (when a man who does not have prostate cancer is diagnosed with this disease) or a false negative result. To clarify the diagnosis, the patient has to undergo additional examinations. This is a digital rectal examination, as well as a biopsy. In rare cases, a biopsy causes pain, provokes infections, bleeding, and blood in urine or semen.

In addition, with a PSA test, doctors detect small asymptomatic tumors. They can grow slowly over many years and in no way affect the life of a man. However, the process of their treatment (surgical intervention and radiation therapy) can significantly reduce the quality of life and have a negative impact on the normal functioning of the intestines and genitals, on the urination process.

Oncoepidemiologist Anton Barchuk

PSA blood test

A prostatic specific antigen or PSA is a protein produced by both healthy and affected prostate cells. Previously, a PSA score of 4.0 ng / ml or lower was considered normal for a healthy man. However, additional studies have shown that the level of PSA in the blood depends on many factors and can vary in the same man.

There have been cases when prostate cancer developed in men with PSA below 4. And, conversely, an increased PSA result does not always mean the presence of cancer.

The presence of a urinary tract infection or prostatitis raises the level of PSA in the blood. In addition, some drugs underestimate it. These include finasteride and dutasteride, intended for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Cons PSA Testing

Testing blood for PSA levels often gives a false positive (when a man who does not have prostate cancer is diagnosed with this disease) or a false negative result. To clarify the diagnosis, the patient has to undergo additional examinations. This is a digital rectal examination, as well as a biopsy. In rare cases, a biopsy causes pain, provokes infections, bleeding, and blood in urine or semen.

In addition, with a PSA test, doctors detect small asymptomatic tumors. They can grow slowly over many years and in no way affect the life of a man. However, the process of their treatment (surgical intervention and radiation therapy) can significantly reduce the quality of life and have a negative impact on the normal functioning of the intestines and genitals, on the urination process.

Oncoepidemiologist Anton Barchuk

What to do if PSA is high?

If the test results showed a high level of PSA in the blood, but the man has no other symptoms of prostate cancer, the doctor may recommend re-testing. If a high PSA level in the blood is confirmed, the doctor will recommend a rectal examination and regularly repeat testing for PSA levels in the blood to monitor any changes.

With continued growth in PSA levels in the blood, additional tests may be recommended to check for other diseases. This list includes urinalysis for urinary tract infections, as well as transrectal ultrasound, X-ray and cystoscopy.If prostate cancer is suspected, the doctor will prescribe a prostate biopsy. Small samples of prostate tissue are studied by pathomorphologists to determine the stage of the disease.

Decoding test results

Attention should be paid to the possible causes of changes in PSA indicators. In any case, the decryption takes into account the age characteristics of the patient. Depending on the results revealed:

  • acute diseases
  • the presence of infections
  • chronic inflammatory processes.

The PSA test is most effective during the period when it is necessary to identify or refute the presence of cancer.

Due to the numerous cases of detecting an ailment already at a late stage, which is practically not amenable to treatment, the analysis for PSA should be regular.

In addition to an increase in test scores, a decrease can also occur. This is due to the use of individual drugs used to treat prostate adenoma. This factor should also be taken into account when decoding the results.

After determining the index of the phi index, patients are divided into several groups:

  • high risk of cancer - a biopsy is recommended to confirm the results,
  • low level of indicators - re-examination is possible for further comparison of indicators.

The final option for further therapy is determined by the doctor, based on the results of all studies.

Preparation and delivery of analysis

For examination, venous blood is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. 8 hours before the procedure, you can not eat food and drinks. The exception is drinking water without gas. On the eve, dinner should be easy, without drinking alcohol. For 5-7 days, you need to abandon sexual contacts, the use of glucocorticoids and anti-inflammatory drugs of the non-steroid type. The doctor must be warned about all the drugs that have been taken in recent months.

Sometimes a few days before the analysis is taken, prostate massage is performed. It is necessary to exclude any physical and emotional stress on the day of the procedure. For 1-1.5 hours, you should refrain from smoking. A biopsy is a contraindication for research, as it can provoke a false positive result. After it, the analysis is taken no earlier than a month later.

How important is early diagnosis

Any oncological disease is easier and faster to treat when detected early.

Note! 60% of successful treatment guarantees the detection of tumors in the first stages of development.

Today, there are several advanced methods for diagnosing prostate cancer. One of which is the determination of the prostate health index.

A blood test for suspected prostate cancer should be detected (or not) using certain markers or antigens that the body produces when a malignant tumor develops in it..

This antigen is labeled - PSA or a specific antigen, which is a glycoprotein. In this case, the marker can be general or free, and is formed directly in the prostate gland, but if there are mutated cells there, its number increases, and the doctor can diagnose the following problems:

  • crayfish,
  • benign tumor
  • inflammation,
  • heart attack.

The final diagnosis will depend on other tests. PSA markers are divided into:

The -2proPSA marker indicates the likely rapid development of malignant tumors in the urogenital system of men.

In malignant tumors, markers have high values:

  1. Cancer suspicions range from 4-10 ng / ml.
  2. The full development of the disease is from 10-20 ng / ml.
  3. Metastases are above 40 ng / ml.

High rates may be with other problems with the prostate gland, but cases of the development of cancer with normal PSA values ​​are also possible. PSA levels in the blood are as follows:

After the start of treatment, the indicators should fall. Otherwise, their growth indicates the ineffectiveness of the treatment and the neglected disease.

What is a health index?

Since the diagnosis of cancer was extremely inaccurate, a more universal method was invented - the most complete systemic indicator “Prostate Health Index” or “Prostate Health Index PHI” was created.

The PHI is the most comprehensive marker that has the most detailed indicators in itself. It is inextricably linked with tumor markers, and is calculated on the basis of its three types and their indicators:

A characteristic feature of the index is that the indices of simple PSA markers grow regardless of the presence of tumors. Their growth provokes inflammation or hyperplasia, but the index grows only in the presence of malignant cells in the prostate. Therefore, to date, the PHI index is the best indicator of prostate health.

Measurement procedure

The PHI index is measured either as an independent study or after a biopsy is prescribed to make sure it is necessary, since the sampling procedure is risky and can lead to complications.

A blood test for the prostate health index is completely safe, and gives a fairly complete picture to determine the need for a biopsy. Since the index measures three indicators at once (total and free PSA, as well as -2proPSA), only modern equipment should be used to determine it.

Measure PHI on an American-made Beckman Coulter DxI 800 analyzer. Since the equipment is fully automatic, the human factor is excluded and the indicators are as accurate as possible. Such devices are in the network of modern clinical diagnostic laboratories Invitro, Hemotest, etc.

As a preventive measure, all men from 50 years of age every 6-12 months should be tested for a PSA marker.

A blood test for the prostate health index is taken on an empty stomach. Preparation for it includes the following activities:

  • Do not eat or drink 8 hours before the procedure (you can drink plain still water),
  • Do not engage in sexual intercourse and try to avoid sperm a week before analysis,
  • do prostate massage in 3 days.

Immediately after collection, blood is sent to the KDL.

  • if prostate cancer is suspected,
  • after 40 years
  • who have difficulty urinating, reduced potency and pain in the inguinal region,
  • with an enlarged prostate (detected during palpation),
  • during a regular inspection,
  • before a prostate biopsy.

It is especially important to conduct a test if the urologist has prescribed a sample (biopsy), because this procedure is traumatic, and can lead to serious complications.

Results: Markers and Norms

You should know that the PHI apparatus can only be calculated if the marker for total PSA is increased (1.6-8.0 ng / ml). As a result of the analysis, the doctor receives as many as five indicators:

  • three standard PSA ratios,
  • coefficient of St. PSA / rev PSA * 100%
  • PHI index.

Based on these indicators, you can determine the likelihood of developing malignant tumors. The results of the analysis and the likelihood of cancer are presented in the table below.

Important! A low phi coefficient indicates a slight likelihood of developing prostate cancer.

With a high value, a prostate biopsy is prescribed to determine the degree and complexity of the disease, but with a low phi, the doctor will most likely offer additional examinations to get new data.

Expert opinion

Since the analysis of the prostate health coefficient is not yet widespread, men who find out about it can sometimes not decide and do not believe in its incredible benefits for diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to know the opinion of experts in this regard.

The PHI index is included in the general guidance of the French Association of Urology, and each of its members regularly conducts this analysis and recommends it to its patients.In the Russian Federation in 2015, clinical guidelines for this diagnosis were published.

The editors of the manuals were the leading urologists of the country: Yu. Alyaev, P. Glybochko, Professor D. Pushkar. But the real experts in the diagnosis of PHI are doctors from abroad, in particular representatives of the American Association of Urology:

  1. Dr. Pavitra Paul, a specialist in national and international health, noted that equal rights in the field of health care consist in the possibility of conducting the same diagnostic procedures for all sectors of society. In general, health care has a 3-in-1 structure: equitable sharing of available medical resources, scientifically proven policies for all patients, and effective treatment.
  2. Tatyana Osipova, deputy gene. Director of Biomedical Issues, LLC “EFiS” said that their research center examined more than 250 patients, of which only 128 patients were included in the final protocol. Based on the results of the examination, 48 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, which was confirmed after a 12-point biopsy. The preliminary data obtained completely coincide with the results obtained by Western colleagues: indicators and analyzes of cancer patients differ significantly from those of healthy men. At the same time, an increase in the value of the PHI index was noted as the degree of malignancy increased.
  3. Alexander Koshmelev Head Urology Chita honey. Academies and a urologist by profession say that, unlike European and American doctors, Russians for some reason are completely unaware of the benefits of PHI in diagnosing prostate cancer. Only an understanding of the importance of PHI analysis will enable Russian urologists to reduce the number of deaths due to cancer of the genitourinary system.

To summarize

Prostate cancer today is a common disease that can very quickly lead a man to death. It is extremely important to monitor your health and be examined on time in order to identify the disease in the early stages for successful treatment. Modern tests allow you to accurately determine the state of health and identify the disease.

General content of the concept

Prostate cancer continues to be the leading cause of death in men. Timely detection of the disease remains an important public health problem. According to American scientists, approximately 1 in 7 people can get an alarming diagnosis.

Every year, the American Cancer Society predicts about more than two hundred thousand new cases of diagnosing the disease. It has been suggested that 27,000 to 28,000 people may die of prostate cancer in the United States. In other words, approximately one in eight of the total number of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is doomed if timely diagnosis of the disease does not come to the rescue.

What is this index

Correction of diagnostic inaccuracies in the detection of prostate cancer required the search for more universal methods. As a result, an extremely advanced system indicator was created called the PHI Prostate Health Index. The abbreviation has a full decoding - “Prostate Health Index”.

The introduction of this marker since the late 1980s has revolutionized screening for prostate cancer. PSA has been shown to be particularly effective in detecting the early stages of the disease. Then discovered forms of cancer that are subject to radical treatment.

The PHI index is a comprehensive marker with the most detailed indicators. A combination of symptoms is being processed. The prostate health index is calculated only with total PSA data ranging from 1.6 - 8.0 ng / ml. The PHI index is recognized as the most clinically significant and at the same time minimally invasive method for diagnosing prostate cancer.

Testing is carried out on an automated biomedical laboratory analyzer manufactured by the American company "Beckman Coulter". The equipment eliminates errors or inaccuracies arising due to the human factor. In addition to its headquarters located in the state of California, the company has representative offices in many countries of the world, including Russia (Moscow).

What are the practical benefits: why install a PHI before a biopsy

The PHI index 3 times improves the effectiveness of the detection of prostate cancer. With PHI readings in hand, the attending physician decides with greater certainty how necessary a biopsy is.

If you take into account the PHI index, then 1 out of 3 men can avoid prostate biopsy. More than 80 published clinical documents, articles, abstracts confirm the clinical benefits of PHI for the detection of prostate cancer compared with PSA alone.

The PHI indicator provides the necessary information not only to the doctor, but to the patient. Knowing the data from the eloquent synthesis of 3 tests is the first step in making important decisions, in determining the strategy and tactics of treating prostate cancer. Analysis of the indicators will provide an answer to the question of whether to conduct a biopsy or you can refrain from it, while remaining under the close supervision of a doctor. Concentrated markers provide the client and the doctor with more information about what the increased PSA level is associated with.

How to prepare for diagnosis

Before starting the test procedure, the attending physician explains to the patient how accurately the diagnosis will help to detect prostate cancer. Pre-evaluated methods of effective treatment. The study is conducted when the values ​​of oPSA are in the range from 2 to 10 ng / ml.

As a rule, blood tests are done in the morning before the first meal. To achieve the most accurate result on the PHI index, you should adhere to such recommendations:

  • For 8 hours before taking tests do not consume food and drinks, the exception is still water,
  • 5-7 days before the test, refuse situations with the release of sperm,
  • 3 days before the diagnosis, do a deep massage of the prostate gland,
  • After a biopsy, blood donation is delayed for 1 month.

In each case, these recommendations are supplemented by the advice of a doctor. It is he who finally determines these or those appointments before the start of testing.

Information on the manual examination of the prostate, the use of drugs, and other manipulations is taken into account. These factors lead to the fact that testing is postponed for 1 to 3 days, sometimes for 2 to 3 weeks. The examination is postponed for a rather long period (approximately 6 weeks) after the puncture.

A special diet or diet is not required a few days before the test.

What is the prostate health index (PHI): norms, preparation and analysis

Diseases of the prostate bother modern men more and more often. Many patients seek professional help when the ailment is already in an advanced stage.

A special study is being conducted to determine the prostate health index PHI.

With its help, a malignant tumor of the prostate gland can be detected at the initial stage. For the most accurate monitoring of patients' condition, specialists use the organ health index.

Prostate Health Index: what is it?

The Prostate Health Index or PHI is a set of special tests that allow you to evaluate the functionality of an organ.

A more active application of this study in practice can be explained by an increased number of cases of development of prostate cancer.

The most common ailment is detected in older men. However, in practice, cases of diagnosis of prostate cancer in men under 40 years have been recorded.The analysis is based on a change in the number of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that is present in the blood.

The doctor compares the obtained value with the generally accepted norm. An increase in the health index indicates the occurrence of any pathologies in the body.

In addition to cancer, PHI helps to identify:

Unlike classical analyzes, the PHI method involves the study of three components simultaneously - free, total PSA in plasma, a value of 2 proPSA. PSA levels may increase due to impaired tissue integrity, prostatic hyperplasia.

Indications for PHI Analysis

An analysis to determine the health index is performed for all men over 40 years old (even if the patient has no complaints). The procedure is carried out promptly, painlessly, special preparation is not required.

The determination of the health index is carried out if a man has such symptoms:

  • regular pelvic pain
  • frequent urination disorders
  • discomfort during bowel movements,
  • decreased potency, fullness in a straight cat.

The above symptoms are characteristic of adenoma, prostatitis, the first stage of oncology. The factor that determines the purpose of the blood test is a family history, the age of the patient.

Such a study is necessary when the patient is prescribed a biopsy. If the obtained indicators are within acceptable limits, the procedure can be avoided.

Decoding of a blood test: norm and deviations

Prostatitis is afraid of this remedy, like fire!

It is only necessary to apply.

As a rule, the interpretation of the results is carried out by a specialist. Based on the information received, the doctor can conclude about the state of the investigated organ, its performance.

The results are formed on the basis of the following principle: the lower the value obtained, the more stable the prostate gland functions.

A similar result indicates the absence of oncopathology. High PSA and PHI can alert patients to potential health risks.

In this case, a number of supporting studies are prescribed to exclude oncology. The norm of PSA in the blood of men is considered 0-0.4 ng per milliliter.

A more accurate norm of indicators is identified taking into account the age of the patient, namely:

  • patients aged 40-49 years: the value should not exceed 2.5 ng / ml,
  • men 50-59 years: norm - less than 3.5 ng / ml,
  • patients of the age category 60-69 years: the indicator should not be higher than 4.5 ng / ml,
  • men over 70 years: the norm should not exceed 6.5 ng / ml.

In addition to increased rates, some patients have lower values. As a rule, this manifestation is associated with the use of individual drugs.

They can be used to treat prostate adenoma and other ailments. This factor is also taken into account by specialists in the process of deciphering the results.

After identifying the PHI index, all patients can be divided into two groups (increased risk of cancer, a group with normal values). The most appropriate treatment regimen is determined by the doctor.

The cost of this service is different. As a rule, prices depend on the region used equipment.

In most cases, the price of the study is indicated without taking the patient’s biometrics. If we look at the example of the Invitro center, the cost of determining the prostate health index is 7-8 thousand rubles.

Related videos

After 40 years, the vast majority of men begin to have problems with the prostate gland. Prostatitis is not just the most common male problem. It would seem that a man is in his prime, and should enjoy life and get the most out of sex, but prostatitis changes everything! The easiest, cheapest and most effective way to get rid of prostatitis.

On the role of the prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in men in the video:

  • Eliminates the causes of circulatory disorders
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What is PSA and when does it rise

Special cells of the prostate gland produce a prostate-specific antigen - a protein whose main function is to dilute sperm. Normally, it is excreted from the body through the ducts of the prostate, without penetrating into its tissue and, especially, into the blood. However, in some cases, it enters the general bloodstream, where it is determined using laboratory research methods.

  • With an increase in the size of the prostate (adenoma, hyperplasia), PSA production is markedly increased by it, because of which it penetrates the blood.
  • Inflammation or congestion in the gland with prostatitis leads to obstruction of the excretory duct and impaired PSA excretion. It can also cause it to enter the bloodstream.
  • With the appearance of malignant neoplasms, the level of PSA also increases. The antigen begins to be actively synthesized by atypical tumor cells. This allows you to diagnose cancer in the early stages, when using other methods to identify it fails.
  • Also, the concentration of PSA in plasma increases with injuries and other mechanical damage to the gland. Due to a violation of the integrity of the tissues of the prostate, an excessive amount of antigen-free leaves in the blood.

Important! Prostate-specific antigen is found in plasma in free and bound form. PSA fractions are in a certain ratio, the violation of which has a poor prognosis. To calculate the PHI index, you need to know the level of general, free and -2proPSA.

Why do you need a preventive examination

Young men and men under 40 very rarely have prostate diseases. Most often they are diagnosed with acute infectious prostatitis, however, the disease is quickly treated and almost never leads to malignant tumors in the gland.

Older men are much more likely to suffer from chronic infectious and congestive prostatitis. These diseases often cause severe complications - hyperplasia, adenoma or cancer. Malignant tumors respond much better to treatment in the early stages, but often they are detected too late. As a result, prostate cancer can be fatal.

To avoid serious consequences, all men need to be examined regularly by a doctor. It is necessary to conduct a digital examination of the gland - so you can determine the change in its consistency, volume or shape. You should also donate blood for PSA - this method will most reliably indicate the presence of pathological changes in the gland.

Fact! With age, PSA levels gradually increase in men, but this is normal and should not cause concern. The main thing is that its concentration does not exceed the age norm.

Preparing for the test

To determine the concentration of PSA, blood is taken from a vein. Typically, an analysis is given in the morning, but this can be done at any time, since there are no daily fluctuations in the prostate-specific antigen. In order not to get a false positive result, it is necessary to properly prepare for the study.

  • You can not donate blood earlier than two weeks after a prostate massage, examination by a urologist, cystoscopy or other medical procedures.
  • For 5-6 days before blood donation, you can not have sex or masturbation, ejaculate.
  • The analysis is carried out at least one month after the biopsy of the prostate gland.
  • 8 hours before blood donation, you can not eat and drink alcohol, tea, coffee or juice. You can drink only non-carbonated water.

Advice! In order to screen for adenoma and prostate cancer, men over 40 need to be tested annually. Only in this way can an increase in PSA concentration in blood plasma be noticed in time.

Normal PSA levels in men of different ages

The generally accepted norm for all ages is the concentration of prostate-specific antigen in the range of 0-4.0 ng per milliliter. However, there are other norms that depend on the age of the man:

  • in people aged 40-49, the PSA level should not exceed 2.5 ng / ml,
  • for men aged 50-59, PSA concentrations of less than 3.5 ng / ml are considered the norm,
  • at the age of 60-69 years, the limit is 4.5ng / ml,
  • after 70 years, the PSA level should not exceed 6.5ng / l.

For diagnosis, not only the common prostate-specific antigen is important, but also its different fractions - free and bound PSA. An increase in one of them or a violation of their ratio sometimes gives an idea of ​​the nature of the pathological process in the prostate gland.

Decryption of analysis results

After calculating the PHI, all men can be divided into three groups. Patients at high risk for cancer are shown a prostate biopsy to verify the diagnosis.

Men who have low PHI do not need a biopsy. Instead, they are prescribed a re-examination after 11-12 months. However, in rare cases, a biopsy is still necessary. The doctor makes the final decision on the basis of all laboratory and instrumental studies.

Watch the video: MDxHealth's UrNCollect (February 2020).

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