Vesiculitis in men - symptoms and treatment
Vesiculitis is a type of inflammatory disease of the male reproductive system. The lesion area becomes seminal vesicles.
In medicine, this disease is often referred to under a different name - spermatocystitis. Infectious and inflammatory factors, which include deviations in the genitourinary system and viral diseases, always influence the development of pathology.
Men with prostate diseases are especially prone to vesiculitis.
Categories and symptoms of vesiculitis
Signs of vesiculitis in men are divided into two categories: general and local.
The first group includes fatigue, frequent headaches, sudden changes in body temperature and general weakness.
The second category includes such signs as frequent urination, nocturnal erections, pain and impaired sexual function.
Each type of disease has its own symptoms and developmental features.
Some of its forms can be distinguished independently before diagnosis in a medical institution.
Now that you know the categories of vesiculitis, the symptoms of various types of disease are the next topic that we will cover in the sections below.
What is vesiculitis?
Vesicles or seminal vesicles are a paired glandular organ located above the prostate gland and under the bladder. Their location may vary depending on the filling and emptying of the bladder. Vesicles have a fusiform shape and a tuberous surface. Their length is about 5–6 cm, width is 2–4 cm, and thickness is 1–2 cm. In the vesicle itself, the body, base and excretory duct, which connects to the deferent duct, are distinguished.
The functions of the seminal vesicles include:
- sperm protection,
- providing them with energy resources,
- production and disposal of residual seminal fluid.
About 50-60% of the volume of sperm is their secret. And with unrealized sexual intercourse, spermatozoa are absorbed by spermiophages located in the vesicles.
With inflammation of the vesicles, all these functions are violated, which negatively affects the well-being and fertility of men.
Seminal vesicles are between the bladder and rectum
Inflammation of the seminal vesicles in men, called vesiculitis, often becomes a complication of other pathological processes than an independent disease.
It usually occurs after 35 years, but younger men who have had an infection or lead a passive lifestyle are also at risk.
There are 4 stages:
- Superficial - the mucous surface of the genitourinary organs swells, reddens, flakes. Blood may appear in semen and urine, sometimes pus.
- Deep - inflammation affects the submucous membranes, seminal vesicles become edematous.
- Empyema - vesicles are filled with pus.
- Paravesiculitis is the most severe form, subcutaneous fat is inflamed.
Vesiculitis in men is unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms vary greatly depending on the form of the disease. So, with a sluggish course, the only sign may be hemospermia, and the acute process is characterized by pain in the groin, fever, difficulty urinating, painful erection.
Causes of inflammation
It should be noted that primary vesiculitis is extremely rare. Usually it accompanies other pathologies of the genitourinary system: for example, orchitis, prostatitis, epididymitis or urethritis. Sometimes it can be a complication of other diseases: for example, SARS, sinusitis or tonsillitis.
In the first case, the cause of vesiculitis are pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases: for example, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, gonococcus or trichomonas. Infection through the vas deferens enters the vesicles. In the second case, the pathogen can enter the vesicles with a blood stream from the affected organ.
Factors that provoke the development of the disease are:
- a sedentary lifestyle and the resulting stagnation in the pelvis,
- irregular, disharmonious sex life,
- too rare or excessive sexual activity, regular practice of interrupted intercourse,
- frequent constipation due to malnutrition and lack of activity,
- the presence of chronic infections in the body, including caries,
- alcohol and nicotine abuse.
Causes of vesiculitis in men
Most often, the root cause of the pathology of the seminal vesicles, also called spermatocystitis, is infection.
There are three ways of penetration of pathogens:
- Contact - on urinogenous (urethra, ureters) and vas deferens. It occurs in diseases of the bladder (for example, ICD), kidneys, urethra, testicles, spermatic cord.
- With lymph - with infections in the prostate, rectum.
- By the circulatory system. With systemic inflammatory processes, from foci of infection.
Violation of blood circulation in the pelvic organs and secretion in the gonads can cause congestive vesiculitis. In addition, the ailment is caused by the following reasons:
- trauma - for example, during medical procedures,
- Anatomical features, such as reflux or atresia, which cause the tissues of the seminal vesicle to come in contact with sperm or urine.
Among the factors that increase the risk of spermatocystitis are: immobility, congestive processes in the lower abdomen, weakened immunity, stress, the practice of interrupting sexual intercourse, constipation. As well as chronic diseases, irregular or too intense sexual activity, injuries of the abdominal organs.
Features of vesiculitis
Vesicles (seminal vesicles) - a kind of glandular organ spindle-shaped, located between the prostate and the bladder. Their location may vary slightly depending on the degree of filling of the bladder. Top they have a hilly surface. Inside the vesicle there is a base, the body of the vesicle and the excretory duct, which is combined with the vas deferens.
The main functions that perform seminal vesicles include:
- Synthesis and subsequent disposal of seminal fluid in case of unrealized sexual intercourse.
- Protection of sperm from external influences during their advancement to the egg.
- Providing sperm with energy resources.
When seminal vesicles become inflamed, their work is disrupted, which negatively affects male fertility.
Vesiculitis is a severe inflammatory process that develops in the tissue layers of the seminal vesicle vesicles, occupying the space in the male body, on the one hand, between the prostate gland and the bladder, on the other hand, next to the rectum, and also connected by their ducts to the deferent duct . From an anatomical point of view, the placement of seminal vesicles is rather inconvenient, since damage to one part of this system very often leads to problems with the work of the others.
Most often, the causes of which vesiculitis begins to develop are infections that enter the genitourinary system, causing diseases such as urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), cystitis (damage to the bladder), pyelo- or glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory process involving the kidneys).
Also, the manifestation of symptoms typical of vesiculitis is possible for men who are delayed in the blood and infections that are responsible for diseases such as tonsillitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis. These ailments alone are not able to lead to an inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles, however, their effect may be enhanced by the influence of factors such as:
- frequent hypothermia,
- reduced immunity
- sedentary lifestyle,
- irregular (excessive or characterized by prolonged "celibacy") sexual activity,
- bowel problems (stable constipation),
- pelvic injuries.
In the largest number of cases (10-30%) of vesiculitis, the symptoms are the result of an inflammatory disease of the prostate gland.
It is an infection in this area that has the greatest chance of affecting the seminal vesicles and causing spermatocystitis (another name for vesiculitis), since the prostate is anatomically connected with these paired formations through the ejaculatory flow. And since the prostate, inflamed, increases in size, it also squeezes the vesicles, which also does not add to their health.
The chronic form of vesiculitis develops against the background of improper treatment of the acute type of the disease, as well as ignoring the symptoms of the disease. Pain in this case is exclusively aching.. This nuance is considered one of the main differences between the chronic and acute forms of the inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles.
Symptoms of vesiculitis in men of a chronic form:
- aching pains in the perineum, lower back, inguinal part and sacrum,
- pain manifests irregularly (mainly at night),
- after intercourse, prolonged pain occurs,
- frequent discharge of sperm from the urethra (a sign may become permanent),
- painful ejaculation (a man does not experience positive feelings in this process),
- blood is clearly visible in semen
- frequent and painful urination.
As you can see, it is quite difficult to diagnose chronic vesiculitis. Signs of an acute form of the disease is the next topic that we will talk about.
Stages of the disease and possible complications
Modern medicine distinguishes between two types or stages of vesiculitis - acute and chronic. Acute vesiculitis begins suddenly and is characterized by a rapid increase in symptoms. Often it develops as a complication of chronic prostatitis, so the patient perceives it as an exacerbation.
Chronic vesiculitis is diagnosed much more often and is usually a complication of acute. Symptoms are not so pronounced with it, so patients often delay in going to the hospital. This leads to erectile dysfunction, problems with ejaculation, a change in sperm composition.
A very dangerous complication of vesiculitis is suppuration of the seminal vesicles. If the acute process cannot be cured in time, fistulas with the rectum may form. This leads to a worsening of the patient’s condition, an increase in temperature to 40 ° C. This process requires surgical treatment.
Causes of Vesiculitis
Stagnant processes or infection can provoke the appearance of a disease. In this case, infectious causes can be further divided into specific and non-specific.
Table 1. Classification of causes of vesiculitis
|1. Stagnant processes in the prostate, seminal vesicles.|
2. Stagnant processes in the pelvic area.
3. Mixed stagnation.
|Specific (associated with the penetration of a specific infection):|
· Mixed infections.
|Nonspecific (associated with the penetration of viruses, bacteria or fungi into the body):|
Bacterial (staphylococcus, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc.).
In young men who have suffered mixed urethritis, staphylococcus is detected in most cases.Acute vesiculitis can occur against a background of a respiratory infection.
In about 3% of patients, the cause of inflammation is the herpes virus, and in 9%, this process begins as a result of infection with mycoplasma. Chronic vesiculitis is mainly associated with urogenital infections.
Men who have undergone a long course of treatment with antibiotics or corticosteroids and have weakened immunity are susceptible to a fungal infection that can cause severe vesiculitis.
The risk factors that cause the inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles include:
- The practice of interrupted intercourse.
- Prolonged sexual abstinence or, conversely, sexual excesses, including frequent masturbation.
- Defective ejaculation.
About all the pros and cons of sexual abstinence tells the urologist, sexologist Ekaterina Makarova:
- Pelvic hypothermia.
- Inflammatory diseases that occur in the pelvic organs (proctitis, hemorrhoids).
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- The presence of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse).
The infection can penetrate into the seminal vesicles in several ways.
Table 2. Routes of infection
|Hematogenous (through blood)||· Development of infectious diseases in the body.|
· The presence in the body of foci of infection, which can become sinusitis, cholecystitis or even caries.
Penetration from the urethra.
Penetration from the ureters.
· Penetration through the vas deferens.
|Lymphatic (through the lymphatic vessels)||The development of pathology in the pelvic area (hemorrhoids, prostatitis, proctitis).|
In rare cases, other causes can lead to the occurrence of vesiculitis:
- Violation of metabolic processes.
- Allergic reaction.
Inflammation in the prostate gland can spread to other organs through the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
- Mechanical injury.
- Reaction to the use of a medicine or chemical.
- Immune defense violation.
Table 3. Symptoms of acute and chronic vesiculitis
|Sharp||1. There is pain in the groin, capable of giving to the sacrum.|
2. Basically, pain occurs on the one hand, even in the case of bilateral vesiculitis.
3. Increased discomfort at the time of defecation or urination.
4. Painful ejaculation.
5. The presence of blood in semen.
6. Symptoms of general intoxication of the body, which include headache, dizziness, fever, weakness and aches in the body.
|Chronic||· Pain during erection, worse at the time of ejaculation.|
· Painful sensations that worry a man several hours after ejaculation.
· A significant decrease in the quality of orgasm.
Soreness of the sacrum, which is characterized as aching.
Violation of urination.
Sometimes the chronic course of vesiculitis goes away without any symptoms and the patient can consult a doctor solely with a complaint about the detection of blood impurities in semen.
About the causes and symptoms of the disease will tell the doctor andrologist, andrologist, Soloviev Nikolai Konstantinovich:
In rare cases with vesiculitis, it is possible:
- Identification of an impurity of pus in the urine.
- The presence of pus in the semen.
- A significant decrease in the number of sperm, which causes infertility in men.
Principles of diagnosis of the disease
A man will never be able to independently understand whether he has inflammation in the seminal vesicles on the basis of only signs of a pathological process. If you experience unpleasant symptoms, you should consult a doctor who will collect a medical history, conduct an initial diagnosis and refer you for further examination.
Even in the office at the reception, after interviewing the patient, the doctor will try to conduct a rectal examination of the prostate gland.For this, the doctor will insert a finger into the anus of the patient and feel the necessary area. Vesiculitis will be indicated by soreness in combination with a local enlargement of the prostate gland.
In the future, it will be necessary to pass biological fluids for research:
- Analysis of prostate secretion. It allows you to identify bacteria and understand what caused the disease in men.
- Blood tests. Inflammation is indicated by an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and an increase in the number of white blood cells.
- Examination of urine for the presence of white blood cells, blood, or bacteria.
- Spermogram. Allows you to evaluate the quality of sperm, as well as detect particles of pus or blood in it.
- PCR diagnosis - for suspected sexually transmitted diseases.
Of the instrumental methods, ultrasound of the seminal vesicles is traditionally used. With vesiculitis, they will be deformed, increased in size, zones with inflammatory tissue changes will also be noticeable.
Also, a man can be sent for MRI of the prostate and seminal vesicles. This is usually necessary when there is doubt about the localization of the inflammatory process or if it is not possible to interpret the ultrasound results with confidence.
If a man ignores the signs of vesiculitis and does not start treatment in time, then inflammation in the seminal vesicles can provoke various complications. Among them are most often found:
- Thrombophlebitis of the venous plexus.
- Opening of seminal vesicles with the release of pus into the rectum or peritoneal cavity. After this, fistulas arise.
Seminal vesicles: functions and location
Seminal vesicles are a paired genital organ in men, participating in the process of ejaculation (ejaculation) and the formation of androgenic saturation. They are located on the side of the prostate gland along its posterior wall and border the distal intestine (in the front projection) and the bladder. Two vas deferens are suitable for seminal vesicles, about 48-50 cm long and up to 3 mm thick, which connect to the excretory ducts and form ejaculatory (vas deferens) ducts. The ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and opens into the lumen of the posterior (prostatic) part of the urethra, where the seminal tubercle is located. At the end of coition in the process of ejaculation, semen consisting of seminal plasma and sperm passes through the vas deferens and is excreted through the penis.
One of the main functions of the seminal vesicles in a man’s body is participation in the process of ejaculation, therefore with vesiculitis not only sexual and erectile function may deteriorate, but also the quality of sperm. With chronic inflammation of the seminal vesicles, sperm activity and motility decrease, which leads to a prolonged absence of pregnancy in the partner and can become a factor in the formation of autoimmune infertility.
Other functions of seminal vesicles:
- sperm absorption during unrealized sexual arousal, not ending sexual intercourse,
- maintaining the viability and motility of sperm due to the production of fructose (the main source of energy for androgen-dependent organs),
- maintaining androgenic saturation,
- storage of protein viscous secretion.
Note! The normal size of the seminal vesicle in a healthy man is about 4.5-5 cm in length and up to 2 cm in width (thickness ≤ 1.5 cm). In inflammatory processes, the size of the glandular vesicle may exceed the specified values.
Treatment Methods for Vesiculitis
The choice of therapeutic tactics largely depends on what kind of violation in the reproductive system led to inflammation of the seminal vesicles. For example, if bacteria were detected by sperm or urine tests, antibiotics are indispensable.If, according to the results of an instrumental examination, there is reason to suspect stagnant processes, and there is no pathogen in biological fluids, antibiotics are not prescribed.
Symptomatic treatment is also carried out aimed at normalizing body temperature, restoring a normal sexual life and eliminating pain. As soon as the patient's well-being is improved, physiotherapy is used, and rectal massage of the prostate is recommended.
The acute form of vesiculitis develops suddenly. General tests help diagnose the disease.. Symptoms of this type of inflammation may not go unnoticed, but in some cases, patients do not attach importance to them, considering this condition of the body a temporary ailment. Pain is manifested in a sharp form resembling cramping.
Signs of an acute form of inflammation:
- general weak condition of the patient (headaches, dizziness, chills),
- increased urination
- pain in the rectum and pelvis,
- wandering pains passing into the lower back or inguinal region,
- increased nightly erections (the process occurs spontaneously),
- increase in body temperature to 39 degrees,
- the appearance of blood impurities in semen,
- discharge from the urethra is white.
Forms and dependent signs of vesiculitis
Specialists determine the presence of two forms of vesiculitis - acute and chronic, with each variety inherent in various signs that characterize the course of the disease to a greater or lesser extent. Symptoms of acute vesiculitis are:
- pain located in the perineum, radiating to the groin or lower back,
- manifestation and intensification of pain during straining,
- temporary relief of pain after emptying the bowel and emptying the bladder,
- soreness, traditionally manifested on the one hand, even if both vesicle formations are affected,
- discharge during defecation of blood or mucus (mixed with blood clots) from the urethra,
- frequent and rapid ejaculation is almost always accompanied by pain, the detection of blood clots in the seminal fluid.
Symptom of acute vesiculitis is perineal pain
Symptoms of acute vesiculitis can also be a general deterioration in health with an increase in body temperature (above 39 ° C), increased headache or muscle pain, weakness, nausea, rapid fatigue. Often at this stage, the patient can be diagnosed with prostatitis, since the symptoms of acute vesiculitis are similar to its manifestations.
After a minor drug exposure, acute vesiculitis in certain situations ends with the cure of the sick man, however, in most cases, the chronic stage becomes the next stage of the development of the disease.
Sometimes, purulent vesiculitis develops with a complication in the form of suppuration of the vesicles (empyema of the seminal vesicles). Usually this happens when the patient does not receive full and complete treatment, as well as in the complete absence of qualified medical care.
After the manifestation of this type of disease, the patient requires immediate hospitalization and urgent surgery.
Signs of chronic vesiculitis are less pronounced than symptoms of an acute form, although they are represented by the same manifestations. In particular, this type of inflammatory lesion is characterized by the following factors:
- pains are inconsistent aching in nature,
- pain sensations covering the bladder and intestines become more intense when urinating and defecating,
- soreness during ejaculation becomes more noticeable, and ejaculation is accompanied by a slight allocation of blood clots,
- after intercourse, long painful sensations appear,
- involuntary ejaculations happen
- impaired sexual function in general.
The inflammatory process in the "chronicle" of vesiculitis is dangerous because without proper treatment it can affect the epididymis and lead to various complications up to obstructive (obstructive) male infertility.
Sometimes an inflammatory disease can turn into a chronic form and progress in it with the same asymptomatic course. This kind of lesion can only be detected as a result of a medical examination, although it can also manifest symptoms, but only when the lesion has already gone too far.
Why can seminal vesicles become inflamed?
The vast majority of vesiculitis has an infectious etiology, and the main causative agent of the inflammatory process are gonococci - gram-negative bacteria, pathogens of gonorrhea and trichomoniasis. These are venereal infections that affect mainly the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract and are characterized by an accumulation of purulent exudate and focal purulent tissue infiltration. In addition to gonococci, various pathogens of urethritis can also cause inflammation of the seminal vesicles, for example, staphylococcus, streptococcus, fecal staphylococcus or Escherichia coli. Pathogenic bacteria can enter the vesicles through the prostatic part of the urethra, vas deferens and ejaculation ducts, and the anterior ampulla of the rectum.
There are also cases of lymphogenous and hematogenous infection, when the infection enters the organs of the genitourinary system through blood or lymph from other infectious foci. Secondary vesiculitis in men can develop on the background of transferred sore throat, flu, with chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, infectious diseases of the digestive tract and oral cavity. A rare type of bacterial spermatocystitis is tuberculous vesiculitis, which in most cases occurs against the background of a general urinary tract damage with mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Factors that increase the risk of developing vesiculitis and its complications include:
- prolonged overflow of blood of the pelvic organs, characteristic of frequent masturbation, perverse or non-traditional sex, as well as long sexual abstinence,
- prostatic hypertrophy,
- diseases of the rectum, especially in the chronic course (hemorrhoids, paraproctitis, anal fissures),
- perineal microtraumas arising from cycling or horse riding (in case of non-observance of the technique of performing the elements or improper selection of equipment and equipment).
Vesiculitis, developing against the background of prolonged stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs, is called cognitive. Risk factors for congestive vesiculitis, in addition to the above pathologies, are bad habits (smoking and alcohol abuse), a sedentary lifestyle, improper and unbalanced diet.
Diagnosis of vesiculitis
To make a diagnosis, the doctor will conduct a series of diagnostic measures.
A basic diagnostic study is probing the prostate gland. To do this, the patient should have the bladder as full as possible. If the seminal vesicles turn out to be inflamed, the doctor will be able to probe the fusiform formation over the prostate.
It is equally important to examine the secret of the vesicles. With inflammation in the seminal vesicles, this secret will contain white blood cells, epithelial cells and other non-characteristic components. In addition, other diagnostic methods may be prescribed:
- Ultrasound, which will make it possible to determine the presence of cysts and other neoplasms in the genitourinary system.
- Vesiculography (x-ray with contrast medium) - allows you to identify the inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles or prostate.
- Wasserman reaction - analysis for syphilis, in which the development of vesiculitis is possible.
The ultrasound image shows acute vesiculitis
Before starting antibiotic treatment, you need to find out what condition the kidneys and liver are in, and also determine the type of pathogen. Some antibacterial agents are harmful only to certain bacteria. The wrong choice, as well as the insufficiently strong dosage, can only strengthen the pathogenic microflora and then it will be almost impossible to cope with it.
Most often with vesiculitis appoint:
To relieve spasm, antispasmodics (Papaverine or No-Shpa), as well as immunomodulators can be prescribed. A quick recovery of the body is possible when taking multivitamin complexes, for example, Tactivin.
Acute vesiculitis requires compliance with bed rest, without this treatment with drugs will not be effective.
Signs and Symptoms
The most characteristic symptoms of acute vesiculitis:
- Pain in the groin and in the depths of the pelvis, extending to the sacrum. Usually it is one-sided, even with damage to both vesicles, since the degree of damage is not the same,
- Pain during filling the bladder and during the act of defecation, during ejaculation,
- The appearance of blood impurities in semen,
- Malaise, fever and headaches.
In chronic vesiculitis observed:
- Pain during erection and ejaculation, within 2-3 hours after sexual intercourse,
- The appearance of pollutions (involuntary ejaculation),
- Sensation changes during orgasm
- Pain in the sacrum
- Occasionally, urination disorders are recorded.
Often, chronic vesiculitis is completely asymptomatic, and the patient comes to the doctor with a single complaint about blood impurities in semen. Also, pus is excreted periodically with urine (pyuria) or with sperm (pyospermia), and a decrease in sperm count (azoospermia).
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnostics includes three stages. First of all, the doctor collects an anamnesis: he learns from the patient about the symptoms, the duration of the manifestation of pain, previous diseases, possible injuries.
Then a rectal examination is performed: the doctor through the rectum with the index finger feels the tissues around the prostate. With vesiculitis (both acute and chronic), painful areas are felt over the prostate gland.
Then, to confirm the diagnosis, the following tests are prescribed:
- Total blood count. Looking for markers of the inflammatory process.
- Urine - for the presence of white blood cells, blood, bacteria.
- Sowing semen or secretion of seminal vesicles. Helps determine the causative agent of the disease, its sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Spermogram for determining the viscosity of the ejaculate, the content of active sperm.
- Ultrasound or MRI can provide a picture of changes in the relevant organs.
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect sexually transmitted diseases.
- Vesiculography (using x-rays and contrast agents) is needed to exclude sarcoma, tuberculosis.
Of course, not all studies are prescribed to the patient; an MRI or ultrasound scan may be enough to make a diagnosis. The number of tests depends on the severity of symptoms, the presence of concomitant complications, the individual characteristics of the man’s body.
Bilateral vesiculitis in some cases can develop as an independent pathology. The main focus of inflammation in this case is the seminal vesicles.
Symptoms of a bilateral form of inflammation:
- painful ejaculation
- premature and uncontrolled ejaculation,
- pain in the perineum (only a chronic form is accompanied by such a sign),
- the development of the inflammatory process occurs in two seminal vesicles.
The choice of physiotherapeutic method depends on both the form of vesiculitis and the characteristics of the body of a sick man.In some cases, such treatment can be prescribed even with exacerbation, but if infection occurs, antibiotics should come first.
Of the physiotherapeutic methods, the following have proven themselves:
- Laser exposure. A focused laser beam relieves inflammation, mobilizes the body's defenses and helps restore normal potency.
- Ultrasound therapy. Exposure to tissues by ultrasound helps to combat edematous processes. It is also possible to conduct phonophoresis - a type of ultrasound exposure in which an antibacterial solution is used.
- The use of electrophoresis is also acceptable, especially in combination with painkillers. The urethral and rectal method are often used.
- If the doctor is sure that there are no purulent processes, the patient recommends transrectal microwave therapy to warm up the seminal vesicles and prostate.
- Exposure to ozone is a modern method of physiotherapeutic treatment designed to combat pathogenic microflora.
All hardware treatments should be agreed with your doctor. Especially when it comes to the use of appliances at home. In this case, special care must be taken, consult with competent urologists and adhere to their advice, even if they prohibit such manipulations.
The diagnosis of vesiculitis is made on the basis of a study of symptoms and a urological examination. A digital examination of the prostate through the rectum is mandatory; it is performed with a filled bladder. The patient should be lying on his right side with his knees pressed to his stomach. In the normal state, the vesicle is not palpable, but in the presence of pathology, the doctor may notice:
- With catarrhal spermatocystitis - slight swelling and soreness near the vesicles,
- With deep spermatocystitis, the vesicles are easily palpated and touch like dense elastic formations of a rounded shape,
- With empyema (complicated by purulent vesiculitis), seminal vesicles are felt as painful springy formations of a pear-shaped form or in the form of sausage.
- With paravesiculitis (inflammation of the fiber around the seminal vesicles), a painful spilled infiltrate is felt, when pressed and spreading to the sides. It is impossible to determine the contours of the vesicles.
Finger examination of the prostate can diagnose vesiculitis
Also, in the diagnosis of inflammation of the seminal vesicles, a bacteriological study of the secretion of vesicles is carried out. It may contain red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, hematoid crystals, spermatozoa.
To confirm the diagnosis and for the purpose of differential diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe:
- Pelvic ultrasound, which allows to determine tumors, cysts and some other pathologies of the genitourinary system,
- Vesiculography or X-ray examination using contrast,
- A blood test for the Wasserman reaction, since syphilis can also lead to an increase in the volume of vesicles.
In addition, UAC, OAM, a study of the hormonal profile are usually prescribed.
Possible ways of infection and development of vesiculitis
Vesiculitis does not occur from scratch, it usually accompanies another infectious and inflammatory problem in the male genital area (urethritis, prostatitis, orchitis, epididymitis).
In addition, it can develop against the background of a general disease of a bacterial or viral etiology (flu, tonsillitis, sepsis). For the development of the inflammatory process, a combination of two reasons is necessary. What it is? Blood stasis in the pelvic organs and the presence of infection.
What adverse factors lead to stagnation:
- lack of motor activity - sedentary work, passive pastime on the weekend,
- lack of regular sex life,
- intermittent coitus practice,
- chronic constipation
- addictions - alcohol, drugs,
- diseases of the rectum - hemorrhoids, paraproctitis, colitis,
- prolonged hypothermia,
- constant stress.
Infectious agents that are involved in the development of inflammation in the male genitourinary system are divided into 2 groups:
- specific - pathogens of tuberculosis infection, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis,
- non-specific - coccal flora, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, Proteus, viruses, fungi, ureaplasmas, chlamydia.
The infection enters the seminal vesicles either with blood from foci of chronic diseases in the body, or through the vas deferens from the testes, or with lymph from neighboring organs (prostate, bladder, rectum).
Rare, but possible causes of vesiculitis:
- mechanical damage,
- poisoning by poisons and toxins,
- allergic reactions
- autoimmune inflammation,
- metabolic pathology.
The factors underlying vesiculitis can be divided into two groups: infectious and stagnant. Infectious causes of the development of the inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles can be as follows:
- Hematogenous vesiculitis. In this case, pathogenic microbes enter the vesicles along with blood. Sources of infection can be very different: pneumonia, caries, sinusitis, sore throat. In such cases, vesiculitis is usually associated with staphylococcus, streptococcus.
- Lymphogenic vesiculitis. Microbes spread with lymph. Possible sources are boils, prostatitis, balanoposthitis. The pathogens of infection are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cocci, Proteus.
- Ascending vesiculitis. In this case, the infection spreads up the urinary tract mucosa. This mode of spread is characteristic of E. coli, as well as sexually transmitted infections.
It is known that inflammatory processes of the seminal vesicle develop not only in older men (after 50 years), but also in representatives of young (25-30 years) and middle (30-45 years) age. The increase in statistics is due to a deterioration in the quality of life of people.
All the reasons that provoke inflammatory disorders of the vesicles and duct can be conditionally divided into 2 main categories - this is infection and stagnation.
Infectious factors are also divided into typical and non-specific.
The first include:
- chlamydia, ureaplasma,
If we consider the bacterial microflora, then most often the causative agents of inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicle are staphylococcal and streptococcal infections. The least common cause is Klebsiel, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Proteus.
But congestive vesiculitis (also called congestive) is associated with congestion in the prostate, seminal vesicles, as well as with the vas deferens, other genital glands and blood vessels in the pelvic organs and in the scrotum.
There are such factors that contribute to the development of stagnant processes in this zone:
- intercourse that was interrupted
- a sign of irregularity in sex life,
- incomplete ejaculation, which is caused by stress during sexual intercourse,
- inactive lifestyle
- smoking and frequent drinking,
- sudden hypothermia,
- proctitis, hemorrhoids and other inflammatory diseases in the pelvic area.
There are several ways of infection penetrating into the seminal vesicles:
- By the circulatory system. This pathway is called hematogenous. Usually this happens with common diseases of an infectious nature. Also affects pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinusitis, cholecystitis, frontal sinusitis, cholangitis and other diseases.
- On contact (contact method). With the urinogenous ascending pathway, the infection spreads from the urethra as a result of urethritis.With a descending urinogenous pathway, the infection penetrates the ureters from the kidneys (usually this occurs with pyelonephritis). In addition, one must also take into account the ascending canalicular method, that is, the infection spreads along the vas deferens with defrentitis, funiculitis, epididymitis.
- According to the lymphatic system. In this case, a person is most often pre-treated for proctitis, paraproctitis, prostatitis, thrombophlebitis in the veins of the hemorrhoidal type.
In addition, vesiculitis in men can be the result of an allergic reaction, mechanical injury, chemical poisoning (with medicines, other chemicals), a malfunction of the immune system.
Vesiculitis is a disease of infectious etiology that occurs due to the entry of staphylococci, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, chlamydia, ureaplasma into the organ.
In 30%, vesiculitis is a complication of prostatitis, 5% of cases of the disease are caused by the herpes virus.
Forms: acute and chronic
Acute vesiculitis is characterized by a sudden onset, rapid development. It starts with a sharp increase in temperature, signs of intoxication. It is easily diagnosed, with timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable. It can develop against the background of prostatitis or ordinary SARS.
Chronic vesiculitis often develops from acute, but may accompany sluggish diseases of the genitourinary organs, for example, chronic inflammation of the prostate. Difficult to determine, often requires differential diagnosis and long treatment.
In a state of neglect, it can lead to impotence, infertility.
What happens with vesiculitis?
Inflammation of the seminal vesicles is called vesiculitis or spermatocystitis. Pathology was first described at the end of the eighteenth century by the Italian physician Giovanni Morgagni, who is considered the founder of pathological anatomy. At that time, the first treatment regimens for spermatocystitis were proposed, but significant positive dynamics in the complex treatment of infectious and inflammatory lesions of the seminal vesicles were achieved only after the application of the protocols of antibacterial and antimicrobial eradication.
The disease can occur in four forms, each of which not only has its own clinical features, but also affects the formation of a prognosis regarding the preservation of reproductive and sexual function.
Table. Clinical forms of vesiculitis.
|A type of spermatocystitis (vesiculitis)||Pathophysiological changes in the seminal glands at this stage|
|Catarrhal (superficial catarrh of the mucous membrane)||With catarrhal inflammation, only the outer membrane of the vesicles, the mucous layer consisting of epithelial cells, is involved in the pathological process. Blood overflow (hyperemia) and exudation of inflammatory fluid are observed, in some areas, infiltration foci are determined. Clinically, catarrhal vesiculitis is also manifested by desquamation of the epithelium (scaly desquamation or exfoliation). The epithelial membrane of the vesicles is thickened, the glands themselves are stretched and filled with serous, mucous or bloody contents. Submucosal tissues with this form of spermatocystitis are not damaged.|
|Deep (median)||Deep vesiculitis is diagnosed in cases when not only mucous membranes, but also submucous membranes are involved in the inflammatory process (in some cases, only the middle membrane is inflamed - muscle). The walls of the organ are condensed, small abscesses form inside it, which can break into the gland of the gland (this outcome is considered the most favorable).|
|Empyema (purulent)||Empyema is an abscess that forms in the cystically dilated cavity of the seminal vesicle. An abscess can be filled with both serous-purulent contents and granulations.|
|Paravesiculitis (common)||Paravesiculitis is the most severe form of vesiculitis, in which inflammation passes to the surrounding subcutaneous fat. This is the most severe form of spermatocystitis, in which the risk of subsequent impotence and infertility is maximum compared to patients who are diagnosed with catarrhal or deep forms of vesiculitis. |
Important! If a man does not seek medical help in a timely manner, while the pathological one is at the stage of superficial inflammation, the disease will progress. The pathophysiological consequences of the prolonged course of acute or chronic vesiculitis are diffuse wall infiltration and thickening, which ultimately lead to the loss of physiological functions, replacement of glandular tissue with fibrous fibers (sclerosis) and gradual organ atrophy.
Identified symptoms of vesiculitis - help in treatment
Pain and other manifestations of inflammation of the seminal vesicles are important signals of the body and, if noticed on time, bring significant benefits in making an accurate diagnosis.
An accurate determination of vesiculitis symptoms and timely treatment will be the best option for a speedy recovery.
At the initial stage of acute development, in order to suppress the inflammatory process, a relatively powerful antibiotic therapy, including a wide range of exposure agents, will be sufficient.
However, it is important to remember that these drugs do not affect the clinical signs of the disease, therefore, in addition to antibiotics, treatment necessarily involves the use of painkillers and antipyretic drugs for symptomatic therapy. In addition, the attending physician may prescribe laxatives, which facilitate the course of bowel movements.
If the symptoms indicate chronic vesiculitis, in addition to the listed remedies, various therapeutic and surgical methods are also used in combination with the same symptomatic therapy drugs. In cases of purulent inflammation of the seminal glands, specialists flush the vesicular cavity through the urethra or (in more severe cases) its operative drainage.
In the future, after treatment, to prevent a relapse of the disease with a re-manifestation of the entire symptomatic picture of inflammation, high-quality prevention will help.
First of all, a man who suffers from an inflammatory lesion of the seminal vesicles will have to promptly eliminate all the foci of acute inflammation in the body, which is achieved by the prophylactic course of taking antibiotics and using local antiseptics. You should also exclude all of the above factors that provoke the disease.
Compliance with personal hygiene is also considered an important parameter of prevention - regular change of underwear and washing of the external genital organs will be able to prevent almost any ailment of the male genitourinary system.
At the first signs of vesiculitis (as well as any other ailment of the genitourinary sphere of the human body), you should immediately consult a doctor.
Even if this is just a recurring pain in the groin, you should not wait until it passes by itself or, moreover, will progress to more serious health problems.
Already with an increase in body temperature to 39 ° C, you should start to worry - this means that the ailment has begun to develop, so you can expect the manifestation and intensification of pain, and then other symptoms.
Not to receive medical care in the acute form of vesiculitis means to wait for its transition to the "chronicle", and then - the formation of suppuration of the seminal vesicles, which can only be managed with the help of surgery.If you continue to ignore the signs and manifestations of vesiculitis, the inflammatory process will expand to the epididymis, provoke chronic bilateral epididymitis and cause male infertility.
Congestive vesiculitis is congestive form of inflammation. The disease develops in most cases due to untimely treatment or ignoring the symptoms.
Seminal vesicles are not completely emptied, and accumulations of secretions lead to the development of purulent inflammation.
The second common cause of this form of the disease is venous congestion in the pelvis or scrotum.
Symptoms of a congestive form of the inflammatory process:
- problems with urination
- in sperm, characteristic bloody patches are visible,
- during ejaculation, painful sensations appear,
- pain in the pelvic area and perineum,
- chills are accompanied by changes in body temperature.
Vesiculitis can develop in superficial or deep form. In the first case, the inflammatory process spreads to the mucous membranes, as a result of which characteristic edema appears.
The second type of disease develops a submucosal lesion, passing to the muscle tissue of the seminal vesicles. Both forms of the disease are accompanied by the formation of pus, which can be distinguished by a characteristic grayish tint.
Surgical treatment is justified only with empyema of the seminal vesicles - a complication of vesiculitis, in which their inside is filled with pus. To achieve a therapeutic effect, the doctor can pierce the seminal vesicle with a special needle or make an incision. Such treatment is invasive, therefore it should be carried out in a hospital.
Complete removal of seminal vesicles is necessary only with the threat of sepsis. In this case, between infertility and death, the doctor will choose the first option.
The treatment approach is chosen based on what caused the development of vesiculitis:
- In case of a bacterial infection (staphylococcus and others), the patient must take antibiotics: macrolides (Sumamed, Erythromycin), tetracyclines (Doxycycline, etc.), nitrofurants (Furagin), sulfonamides (Bactrim) or combination antibiotics (Tetraolean).
- In case of detection of urogenital infection and rare pathogens (Klebsiella, etc.), the doctor will prescribe Biseptol, Linkomycin, and Miranem drugs. In this case, the sexual partners of the sick man should also be treated.
- If the cause is a specific infection (syphilis, gonorrhea, etc.), the patient is prescribed antibacterial drugs of the penicillin or cephalosporin groups.
- With stagnant processes that led to inflammation of the seminal vesicles, the use of angioprotectors (Eskuzan, Venoruton, Trental, Inderal, etc.) is indicated. Additionally, the man is prescribed a course of physiotherapy and massage of the prostate. Microclysters with decoctions of herbs and novocaine give a good effect.
Additionally, during treatment, the patient is prescribed:
- Drugs that have anti-inflammatory effects (Diclofenac, Indomethacin, etc.), which relieve inflammation and stop soreness.
- Immunomodulators (Viferon, Pyrogenal), which can increase immunity and, accordingly, accelerate recovery.
Diclofenac is a drug with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects. The price in pharmacies is from 13 rubles.
- Acupuncture, stimulating recovery processes.
- The course of exercise therapy for the normalization of metabolic processes.
- Spa treatment.
What types of vesiculitis are and how do they manifest
Inflammation of the seminal vesicles is classified according to the changes occurring in this organ. There are 4 types of vesiculitis.
There are two forms of the disease: acute and chronic, having some common symptoms:
- Pain in the inguinal region and perineum, extending to the lumbosacral area, aggravated by overflowing urea and during bowel movements.
- Temperature increase from 37 to 39 ° C.
- Severe weakness and fatigue.
- Painful ejaculation.
- Impurities of blood are observed in semen.
For the acute form of vesiculitis, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- Sharp pains in the inguinal region, lower abdomen, region of the bladder and anal passage (single or bilateral) - can radiate to the lumbosacral zone, reach a maximum during urination and defecation.
- Too frequent nocturnal erections.
- The temperature rises above 39 ° C.
- The presence of blood impurities in semen (hemospermia).
- Rapid urination.
- During straining during bowel movements, prostatorrhea is observed - a small amount of viscous milky-white fluid that does not contain sperm is released from the urethra.
Acute vesiculitis, as a rule, accompanies the chronic form of prostatitis, is characterized by similar symptoms. For this reason, often inflammation of the seminal vesicles is erroneously regarded as an exacerbation of chronic prostatitis. For these two disorders, there is a common name - prostate vesiculitis.
The chronic form in most cases develops as a complication of ineffectively treated acute. The main symptoms are similar to the manifestations of acute vesiculitis, the main difference is the different nature of the pain. In the chronic course of pathology, they are less pronounced, aching, appear at times. Painful sensations are concentrated in the perineum and groin, lower abdomen, but can spread to the penis and testicles.
Discharges from the urethral canal, frequent or constantly observed discharge from the urethra of sperm (spermatorrhea) with impurities of blood are added to frequent urges. Problems with urination are due to the penetration of infectious pathogens into the urethra. With an erection, pain occurs, erectile dysfunction develops, degenerative changes in the tissues of the seminal vesicles occur.
Chronic vesiculitis is dangerous for the development of such complications:
- Chronic form of bilateral epididymitis.
- Impaired semen production.
- Purulent inflammation (empyema) of seminal vesicles.
With complications, severe pain occurs, the temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, the general condition worsens significantly. Infectious inflammation extends to the testes and appendages, the likelihood of infertility increases sharply, and the pathologies leading to it, most often, are not amenable to treatment.
As an independent disease, vesiculitis is rare and more often acts as a complication of inflammatory diseases of the urinary system (orchitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, urethritis).
Treatment of vesiculitis: features
The doctor prescribes the treatment of vesiculitis based on the result of the examination and analyzes, symptomatic therapy is used depending on the signs that appear.
The patient is prescribed medication and physiotherapeutic procedures. Sometimes, as part of complex treatment, folk remedies are also used.
Vesiculitis is a pathological process characterized by inflammation in the seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicles are located between the bottom of the bladder and the rectum, they are a convoluted tube about five centimeters long. Seminal vesicles are paired organs that produce a special secret that is part of sperm.
The liquid part of semen consists of 75% of the secretion of seminal vesicles. This secret is a source of energy, as it contains a large amount of fructose. It is fructose that makes sperm viable, energetic, and therefore capable of fertilization.
Thus, inflammation of the seminal vesicles can cause quite serious problems in the male genital area, including erectile dysfunction and infertility. The diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis, laboratory tests, as well as visualizing research methods and digital rectal examination.
Vesiculitis is rarely the primary pathology and is more often a complication of other diseases of the male urogenital system. Allocate single or bilateral vesiculitis. The course of the disease can be acute and chronic.
Vesiculitis has an infectious etiology. The cause of the disease can be streptococci, staphylococci, gonorrhea, pale treponema, etc. Infectious agents can enter the seminal vesicles in a variety of ways:
- with blood flow in pneumonia, flu, tonsillitis and other infectious diseases,
- with lymph flow,
- as an ascending infection from the spermatic cord.
Combined forms of the disease are often diagnosed when vesiculitis occurs against the background of chronic prostatitis, urethritis, etc. Also, the disease can occur as a result of prolonged sexual abstinence, leading to stagnant processes, impaired blood circulation in the pelvis or a violation of the tone of the seminal vesicles.
There are a number of factors that can provoke a disease or complicate its course:
- immunodeficiency of various origins,
- illegibility of a man in sexual intercourse,
- non-compliance with dietary rules for various bowel diseases, which leads to constipation.
If the patient is diagnosed with vesiculitis, treatment should be started immediately. Timely therapy avoids the consequences, which are quite serious. Self-medication is unacceptable and can cause conditions that threaten the patient's life.
With improper and untimely treatment of acute vesiculitis, suppuration of seminal vesicles may begin. The most formidable complication of chronic vesiculitis is epididymitis. This pathology is characterized by inflammation of the epididymis. This condition can cause male infertility.
Acute vesiculitis is characterized by a sudden onset. The patient’s body temperature rises sharply, and there are phenomena of general intoxication of the body: headache, fever, fatigue, and others.
Patients complain of sharp pain over the pubic bone (on one or both sides), in the groin, or in the rectum. The pain syndrome sharply increases with the act of defecation or with urination. The patient experiences frequent urination.
Hemospermia phenomena - semen with blood can be observed.
Chronic vesiculitis is dangerous because it is often asymptomatic. Patients complain of constant aching pain in the rectum or sacrum, in the perineum and in the suprapubic region. Pain gives to the genitals. An erection is painful and brings the patient a lot of discomfort. Often sex life becomes impossible for the patient.
An important role is played by the psychosomatic aspect, when the patient begins to subconsciously fear an erection due to pain. Thus, sexual function is impaired. The quality of the orgasm deteriorates significantly, and sometimes it does not occur at all. Urination is frequent and painful.
The severity of symptoms is individual in nature, but if a man has noticed such signs, he urgently needs to contact a urologist.
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Diagnosis of vesiculitis is not difficult for an experienced specialist, as it has a very characteristic clinical picture. It is important to establish the cause of the disease, that is, an infectious agent. For this purpose, laboratory studies of the secretion of seminal vesicles are carried out.
General blood and urine tests are also very informative.Deviations from the norm indicate the presence and nature of the inflammatory process. Apply genital ultrasound. The study may reveal an increase in seminal vesicles.
Also, patients are prescribed a spermogram. With vesiculitis, the volume of the ejaculate changes (both in the direction of decrease and in the direction of increase), hemospermia (the presence of blood in semen) and a change in sperm viscosity can be detected.
Treatment of acute vesiculitis consists in the use of antibacterial drugs (antibiotics) and symptomatic therapy (analgesics, laxatives, drugs to lower the temperature, etc.).
In the acute period, the patient should observe bed rest and be at rest. After you manage to cope with temperature and chills, physiotherapeutic procedures begin to be applied.
Vesiculitis “loves” heat, therefore, the patient is shown therapeutic hot baths, heating pads on the perineum, warm microclysters, etc.
Therapy of chronic vesiculitis includes a host of activities, is long-term and requires an integrated approach. The patient must lead a healthy lifestyle and adhere to the principles of diet. Conduct sessions of transrectal massage, mud therapy, laser therapy and diathermy.
In especially severe clinical cases, washing of the seminal vesicles with antiseptic solutions or complete removal of one of the seminal vesicles can be carried out.
If the patient has vesiculitis, symptoms and treatment may vary depending on the characteristics of the patient's body. The basis of prevention is the timely treatment of background pathologies and the exclusion of risk factors.
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Traditional medicine against spermatocystitis
In the urological department of the hospital, a patient with acute vesiculitis is prescribed a half-bed regimen and a special light diet that does not overload the body and relieves constipation. In addition, thermal physiotherapy is prescribed:
- hot sitz baths 2-3 times a day for 15 to 20 minutes,
- crotch warmers,
- microclysters with warm (40 ° С) water from 0.5–1 g of antipyrine 2-3 times a day.
Symptomatic therapy is also carried out:
- sexually stimulated bromine preparations
- painkiller, including in the form of candles,
- laxative for constipation.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic is also prescribed, for example, from the group of penicillins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. After acute inflammation is stopped, a special massage is performed to obtain the secretion of seminal vesicles. Its bacteriological and microscopic examination is carried out. Then the prescribed treatment can be slightly corrected, an antibiotic suitable in this situation is chosen more.
In acute vesiculitis, such a massage is contraindicated, therefore, treatment is prescribed based on the patient's history and well-being. In chronic vesiculitis, regular urological massage, a variety of physiotherapy procedures, such as mud therapy and paraffin treatment, are recommended. They also instill silver nitrate 0.25-0.5% in the back of the urethra. Antibacterial drugs are injected directly into the seminal vesicles. In the most advanced situations, surgical treatment is recommended, for example, vesiculectomy. But in most cases, the treatment is successful and leads to a complete recovery of the patient.
Modern medicine easily copes with vesiculitis
Alternative methods of treatment
If we are not talking about acute infectious inflammation, you can use various infusions and decoctions, but in combination with conservative methods and only with the approval of herbal medicine by a doctor.In all other cases, it is better to refrain from such actions - you can hurt yourself, aggravate the course of the disease and provoke the development of serious complications.
Seating baths with chamomile infusion will have a good effect. To prepare it you need:
- Pour 100 g of inflorescences with a liter of water.
- Bring to a boil and remove from stove.
- Brew for an hour in a container tightly wrapped in a towel.
- Pour into a basin and add water to the desired volume.
It is enough to do one session daily, the duration of which does not exceed 15 minutes. This recipe is not suitable for those who are allergic to chamomile. It is also prohibited in purulent processes in the seminal vesicles.
You can mix in equal parts sage grass, burdock root and St. John's wort, then pour 20 g of the ready-made collection with a glass of water and simmer in a water bath for 30 minutes. The resulting infusion is filtered, divided into three equal parts and drunk during the day. The duration of the course should not be more than three weeks, then for the same period you need to take a break. This recipe will help to cope with inflammation, as well as moderate the intensity of the pain syndrome.
It is good to drink carrot juice, which will help replenish the reserves of vitamins and maintain health with vesiculitis.
Measures for the prevention of this disease are easy to remember. They are also relevant for other diseases of the genitourinary system, therefore they should be known to everyone. A man should avoid:
- Promiscuous sexual intercourse.
- Self-medication, especially with antibiotics.
- Situations in which hypothermia is possible.
- A long stay in the sitting position (in this case, you can do special exercises).
- Alcohol abuse and smoking.
It will be nice to go in for sports, walk in the fresh air, monitor the quality of the foods used in food. This approach will keep the immune system in good shape, which means that the degree of protection against vesiculitis will increase significantly.
In addition to drug treatment in simple situations, you can try alternative methods, for example, rectal suppositories with propolis, as well as rectal mud swabs and hot microclysters with infusion of chamomile and calendula or with mineral water.
In the process of therapy, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system to prevent relapse. To do this, you can take tinctures of echinacea and eleutherococcus. In addition, there are recipes on herbs designed specifically for the treatment of vesiculitis:
- We mix 25 g of burdock root, 15 g of black poplar buds, 10 g of sage and 5 g of St. John's wort. Pour boiling water half a liter together and insist for about 10 hours in a sealed container. We take such a medicine of 50 ml. three times a day for 20 minutes before eating, preferably in a warm form. The course of treatment lasts about 1-2 months, it depends on the severity of the patient's condition.
- You can take a decoction of parsley seeds. To prepare it, you need 2 tbsp. l grind raw materials, pour boiling water and boil for 15 minutes. Such a medicine will help cleanse the urinary tract and reduce the symptoms of vesiculitis.
It will also be useful to drink fresh juices daily. They strengthen the body, relieve constipation and provide valuable vitamins.
The consequences of vesiculitis in men
An acute form of pathology requires hospitalization and treatment of a patient in a hospital. In more complex cases, surgery should be performed. In the urology department, the patient must observe a half-bed regimen and adhere to a light diet that does not overload the gastrointestinal tract and relieves constipation. In addition, the doctor prescribes sedentary baths, a heating pad on the perineum, microclyster.
In modern medical practice, treatment of vesiculitis occurs as follows:
- taking bromine in case of excessive agitation,
- painkillers. Special rectal suppositories are often prescribed,
- antipyretic drugs
- taking a laxative,
- broad-spectrum antibiotics: a group of penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins,
- massage performed after relief of acute inflammation.
Acute and chronic vesiculitis manifest themselves in different ways:
- Acute form:
- sharp pain in the lower abdomen, aggravated by bowel movements,
- frequent urination with blood
- pain during ejaculation, blood in semen,
- involuntary erection at night,
- fever, chills.
- Chronic form: Sometimes the only symptom in the transition of vesiculitis to the chronic stage is an admixture of blood in semen. Sometimes men feel:
- unexpressed pain in the groin and sacrum,
- painful erection, dim orgasm,
- discomfort during urination.
When vesiculitis becomes chronic, only signs of a sexual nature appear. As the disease develops, pus appears in the semen.
In 100% of cases, this pathology is a complication of another pathology of infectious and inflammatory origin.
These include pathologies of the genitourinary system:
- orchitis (single or double-sided),
- inflammation of the prostate gland,
- urethritis (inflammation of the ureter).
According to statistics, men who have chronic inflammation of the prostate gland for a long time are most often affected by vesiculitis.
Options for diagnosing vesiculitis:
- blood test (shows an increase in the number of leukocytes and an acceleration of ESR),
- urinalysis (reveals the presence of mucus in the urine, as well as an increase in red blood cells and white blood cells),
- transrectal ultrasound (allows you to recognize an increase in seminal vesicles, assess the general condition of the prostate gland, as well as the amount of fluid formed),
- nuclear magnetic resonance (an expensive procedure that allows you to get the most information about the state of male health),
- sowing the contents of seminal vesicles (allows you to study the composition of biological material),
- vesiculography (an invasive procedure that distinguishes the presence of inflammation in the seminal vesicles from other diseases of the genitourinary sphere),
- spermogram (with an internal inflammatory process, there is a decrease or increase in sperm volume, slow movement of sperm, the presence of additional impurities),
- tests aimed at identifying sexually transmitted diseases (blood test for chlamydia and gonorrhea, PCR diagnostics).
IMPORTANT. If you consult a specialist (urologist) in a timely manner, then the likelihood of the need for surgical intervention will be minimal. In the early stages, the disease can be completely cured with medications and special procedures.
A serious consequence of vesiculitis is suppuration in the vesicles. The development of such a complication is indicated by severe pain in the sacral and inguinal areas, fever, feeling of chills, severe weakness. Such a patient should be urgently placed in a hospital for surgical treatment. Surgery cannot be dispensed with, since there is a high risk of involving other organs in the infectious process. As a result, fatal sepsis may develop.
Another serious complication of vesiculitis is infertility. Vesiculitis can cause the seminal vesicles to dry out and they will no longer be able to fulfill their function. Also, problems with an erection arise, the quality of an orgasm worsens.
There are two seminal vesicles in the male body, and they are located between the prostate bladder in the front, rectum, respectively, behind.
The connection of the excretory ducts of the vesicles is carried out with the vas deferens (the function of which is to ensure the transfer of sperm from the testes), which forms the deferent duct. He, in turn, opens in the prostate gland, in the prostatic part of the urethra.
Note that the knowledge of the location of the area in which the seminal vesicles are located is extremely important, because it is due to this that the primary diagnosis of the disease we are considering is possible on the basis of the emerging symptoms.
The location of the seminal vesicles
As for the function that the seminal vesicles perform, it boils down to the secretion of the liquid base of the ejaculant, which subsequently mixes with the secretion from the prostate gland, as well as to spermatozoa, the secretion of which occurs in the area of the convoluted tubules of the testicles.
In addition, the fluid produced in the seminal vesicles includes a significant amount of fructose, due to the presence of which the sperm is provided with the energy required for its movement.
Separately, the function of sperm absorption in the situation when the sexual intercourse was incomplete is also attributed to the functions of the seminal vesicles.
The basis of treatment for inflammation of the seminal vesicles is antibiotic therapy, moreover, not one, but 2-3 drugs are immediately included in the protocol. Typically, these are combinations of penicillin preparations (ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulonate), cephalosporins (Cefazolin, Cefixime) and aminoglycosides (gentamicin sulfate). Antibacterial therapy can be supplemented with antimicrobial agents from the group of sulfonamides (Sulfacil, Streptocid) and oxyquinolines (nitroxoline).
Less commonly, urinary tract infections, which include bacterial inflammation of the seminal vesicles, are treated with oxolinic acid from the quinolone group (trade name - “Gramurin”). Gramurin treats not only infectious vesiculitis, but also other infections that can be a complication of inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system: pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, pyelitis.
Ancillary therapy is selected taking into account the general condition of the patient and the available symptoms and may include the following medications:
- narcotic analgesics and belladonna extract (belladonna) to reduce pain in the groin and rectum in the form of rectal suppositories,
- bromine preparations to suppress sexual arousal,
- drip - vitamin solutions (retinol acetate, ascorbic acid, vitamin B group),
- silver nitrate 0.25-0.5% (in the form of a solution for instillation into the prostatic part of the urethra),
- novocaine blockade.
For severe pain, the use of Antipyrine (phenazone), a drug from the pyrazolone group with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, gives a good effect. It is recommended to use it no more often 2-3 times a day, adding powder to the microclyster solution.
Important! During the first 3-7 days of illness, a man is recommended to observe bed rest.
Vesiculitis is one of those diseases that can never be considered completely cured. Relapse can occur for any reason, so men who have spermatocystitis have to carefully monitor their health all their lives. It is very important to constantly monitor the state of the prostate gland, since it is prostatitis in most cases that causes vesiculitis.
Men with chronic inflammation of the seminal vesicles need to monitor their diet. It should be complete and contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals, as well as a lot of fiber, which prevents constipation. Also, hypothermia, especially the pelvic zone, should not be allowed. Regular, stable sex life is very important.
Sufficient physical activity prevents vesiculitis
Prognosis and complications
Complications of vesiculitis are:
- The obstructive form of male infertility is drying out and a complete irreversible loss of reproductive function.
- Seminal vesicle empyema is the most severe complication of vesiculitis.The disease is a purulent pathological process, manifested by intoxication and pain syndromes and leading to sepsis and death if untreated.
- Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, often leading to a complete loss of sexual function.
The prognosis for the timely treatment of acute vesiculitis is favorable. With the development of complications, it is relatively favorable.
Late treatment to a urologist, as well as incorrect treatment of vesiculitis, can cause a number of complications:
- accumulation of pus in the affected organ (empyema) - manifests itself as a sharp deterioration in overall health, the appearance of chills, acute pain in the inguinal region. Without treatment, it is complicated by sepsis, peritonitis, which can lead to the death of the patient,
- thrombophlebitis of the veins of the pelvic organs - can develop both for a long time and acutely. In this case, pains in the perineum of a aching character appear, intensifying after a long stay on the legs,
- the development of chronic inflammation of the urethra and epididymis,
- male infertility
- deterioration of erectile function and sexual quality.
To prevent the development of the disease, situations leading to stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs should be excluded. So, one must avoid prolonged sitting or standing. You should also normalize your diet to prevent constipation. An important measure will be the elimination or minimization of bad habits, hypothermia, stressful situations.
Such factors as ordered sex life, physical activity, healthy varied nutrition, timely treatment of foci of chronic infection in the body of any localization will help preserve men's health. Also, one should not forget about the rules of personal hygiene.
The disease in question may have some consequences. The main ones are:
- Thrombophlebitis. Complication provokes problems with the outflow of blood and the development of stagnant processes. If a person often drinks alcohol, overly or rarely has sex, then his condition is significantly aggravated. With complicated thrombophlebitis, the pain intensifies, dysuric disorder appears and body temperature rises to high rates. Stagnation in the veins reduces immunity and provokes the development of various infectious processes.
- Autopsy of the abscess. When this phenomenon occurs, the risk of peritonitis and fistula formation as a result of pus entering the peritoneum or rectum increases. Acute peritonitis is manifested by intoxication and a sharp deterioration in the condition of a sick person.
- Chronic epididymitis or urethritis. With epididymitis, the patient feels pain in the testicle while walking, tightening and an increase in the appendage. Urethritis is manifested by itching, burning, and pain during urination. In addition, fetid fluid is released from the urethra.
- Infertility. This complication develops with obliteration of the lumen of the ejaculatory canal. If the lumen is partially narrowed, then there is a decrease in the number of sperm.
All of these consequences can be avoided if timely treatment of the problem occurs. In addition, it is very important to try to avoid its primary or reappearance. Doctors note several key points that may be ideal options for preventing the development of vesiculitis.
One of the leading symptoms of vesiculitis is intense pain over the pubis.
In the absence of adequate treatment, acute inflammation of the seminal vesicles can be complicated by their suppuration (empyema). In the chronic course of the disease, the following diseases often develop:
- chronic epididymitis,
- infertility (due to a decrease in sperm quality - azoospermia).
Seminal vesicles create a fluid that contains the nutrients needed to saturate sperm.Obtaining a powerful influx of energy due to the release of fructose, sperm cells are able to maintain motor activity for a long period of time. Impaired function of this gland leads to depletion of sperm composition and the appearance of a large percentage of non-viable seminal cells.
In advanced situations, the appearance of cancer cells that quickly pass to the pelvic organs is possible. The consequences of the pathological process is cancer of the prostate and bladder.
The condition of the seminal vesicles is determined by vesiculography and radiological studies that facilitate the preparation of tactics for eliminating the disease.
Seminal vesicle inflammation can progress only in the absence of timely treatment of vesiculitis.
If the drugs are selected correctly, the diagnosis is established in a timely manner and the patient follows the recommendations of specialists, then the prognosis of the disease will be positive.
In addition to the deterioration of the general condition of the body with the development of vesiculitis, serious complications can arise, which can only be removed by the surgical method, and reproductive function will be disrupted forever.
Purulent congestion can cause sepsis. If vesiculitis is not treated in a timely manner, a critical condition will arise that can cause the patient to die.
Complications of vesiculitis can be the worst. As a rule, there is only one reason for their development - this is the absence or delay of treatment. Purulent inflammation of the vesicles requiring surgery, which was mentioned above, is not the most serious problem that a patient with poorly treated vesiculitis can expect.
Acute vesiculitis can be complicated by suppuration of seminal vesicles (temperature rise to 40 ° C and above, severe pain in the groin and severe symptoms of intoxication).
Thermal procedures are used both in the acute course of vesiculitis, and during remissions. There are several methods of thermal exposure to the inflamed area.
- Diathermy. Diathermy is a type of physiotherapy and is a deep heating of tissues with high frequency currents.
- Sitz baths. Baths must be done often - up to 2-3 times a day for 7-10 days. Water temperature is about 42 ° C. In water, you can add an alcoholic solution of iodine (10 drops), 200 g of sea salt or replace the aqueous solution with a decoction of herbs: chamomile, sage, St. John's wort or calendula.
On the recommendation of a doctor, drugs can be added to microclyster water, for example, Phenazone.
Since the main cause of vesiculitis does not exist, talking about its prevention is not easy. Nevertheless, modern urologists have developed methods for the prevention of acute spermatocystitis:
- Elimination of the causes of inflammation. Usually it is preceded by such chronic processes as urethritis and prostatitis. Timely treatment of these diseases will help prevent vesiculitis. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the health of all organs. Even untreated caries can cause inflammation of the seminal vesicles.
- Healthy lifestyle and lack of hypothermia. You need to eat right, just move and eliminate bad habits.
- Careful personal hygiene. A regular toilet of the genitals is an indispensable element in the prevention of any diseases of the genitourinary system.
Vesiculitis or inflammation of the seminal vesicles is a dangerous disease that can lead to the destruction of the reproductive function of a man and even his death due to sepsis (the spread of purulent infection throughout the body). This disease rarely appears on its own and is usually a complication of other inflammatory processes. Therefore, to avoid it, we must try to keep our body in shape and treat any infections on time.If vesiculitis cannot be avoided, then treatment is carried out with the help of antibiotics and symptomatic therapy and physiotherapy.
Treatment with folk remedies
In the case of uncomplicated vesiculitis in men, treatment can be carried out at home. Along with drug therapy, alternative methods are used. But, before using one or another folk prescription, it is important to consult with your doctor. These methods include:
- Use of rectal suppositories with propolis.
- Infusions of medicinal herbs (burdock root, sage, St. John's wort). Such an agent has an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, analgesic and immunostimulating effect. It must be taken 50 ml before meals.
- A decoction of medicinal herbs (nettle, horsetail, yarrow and calendula). The medicine has a calming, immunomodulating effect, relieves pain, inflammation and accelerates recovery. It is taken in 0.5 cups after a meal.
Video on how to cook propolis candles on your own:
- Warm baths, prepared on the basis of a decoction of pharmacy chamomile. This procedure relieves inflammation and activates the immune defense.
- Juice therapy. Every man with a diagnosis of vesiculitis needs to drink a glass of freshly squeezed juice from carrots, cucumbers, parsley, celery and cranberries every morning on an empty stomach. Regular consumption of fresh juices helps boost immunity and flush the urinary tract.
Vesiculitis for men can be very dangerous. The pathological process that began with chronic prostatitis and continued with inflammation of the seminal vesicles can lead to suppuration. In this case, an operation is required, without which the patient can die from blood poisoning.
There are other dangers from vesiculitis, including the development of impotence and the appearance of infertility. Therefore, at the first symptoms, especially if there is noticeable blood in the semen and there are characteristic pains, you need to contact a urologist. The sooner treatment is started, the more likely it is to recover while maintaining reproductive function.
Popular treatments for vesiculitis also include:
- mud therapy
- balneotherapy (mineral water treatment),
- massage of seminal vesicles (for 30-60 seconds with an interval of 1 day),
- hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches).
In the acute period, men are prescribed a sparing milk and vegetable diet that excludes spices, products containing vinegar, a large amount of salt and various chemical additives. The use of alcoholic and carbonated drinks is completely prohibited. The basis of the diet should be vegetable soups, salads and casseroles, milk porridges and low-fat sour-milk products from milk, fruits. Meat, fish, eggs should be consumed in limited quantities - not more than 250 g per day (in boiled or baked form without adding oil).
After the regression of acute symptoms, an exercise therapy course may be recommended as a supportive measure to the patient. Physical therapy allows you to establish blood circulation in the organs and eliminate congestion in the pelvic organs, as well as strengthen the pelvic muscles.
Vesiculitis is a disease that cannot be cured to the end. This is due to the fact that in men, even after recovery, relapses often occur. To avoid this, it is very important to increase immunity and monitor your lifestyle. Since often the cause of vesiculitis is inflammation of the prostate gland, it is important for a man to control her condition.
There are many myths about good nutrition. Alexander Samsonov understands:
In chronic vesiculitis, a man must follow the principles of a healthy diet. The diet should be full and balanced.The patient’s diet should contain the necessary vitamins, trace elements and a large amount of fiber, which will help to avoid constipation and other stagnant processes of the pelvic area. Regular sex life is important for any man, and you should not forget about the need to use a condom in case of contact with casual partners.
Surgery for vesiculitis is required when the pathology reaches the stage of empyema, that is, single or multiple abscesses form in the vesicles. Surgery to remove seminal vesicles is rarely used, and indications for its appointment are serious diseases of the genitourinary system, for example, malignant tumors or genitourinary tuberculosis.
Surgical access for vesiclectomy is performed through the sacrococcygeal region. The patient's position is on his back with legs wide apart. The rehabilitation and recovery period, depending on the complexity of the operation and the general condition of the patient, can be from 2 to 6 weeks.
Diagnosis of vesiculitis
Verification of vesiculitis is carried out using a special complex developed in urology in the form of diagnostic procedures. First of all, it is necessary to do a general blood test, which will determine the signs of the inflammatory process (which is manifested in an increase in the number of leukocytes, as well as in accelerating ESR).
It is noteworthy that the detection of signs indicating the relevance of the inflammatory process also indicates a general urinalysis. In it, in particular, in addition to an increase in leukocytes and red blood cells, an admixture of mucus is found, often with blood, which allows the doctor to suggest the presence of vesiculitis in the patient.
In general, the verification of the disease under consideration is carried out on the basis of data obtained by ultrasound. This examination involves examination of the prostate gland, as well as seminal vesicles.
The latter in the case of the inflammatory process in them, will be increased, at the same time, the presence of a significant amount of fluid will be determined in them.
Most often, the walls of seminal vesicles have an uneven density, as well as a thickening formed as a result of edema.
In order to specify the causative agent of the disease, the contents of the seminal vesicles are sown. In some cases, a spermogram is used. In this case, inflammation of the seminal vesicles will be indicated by a slowdown in liquefaction of sperm, as well as an increase / decrease in its volume, the presence of an impurity in the form of blood, and impaired sperm motility.
In addition to taking medication, it is important to follow a diet based on plant and dairy products. You should reduce the consumption of salt, spices, vinegar, butter, fried and fatty foods - everything that causes intestinal irritation, bloating, diarrhea, constipation.
As an aid, heat therapy is used:
- sitting baths with water of 40-42 degrees,
- applying a heating pad to the perineum 3-4 times a day,
- microclysters with a volume of 150-300 ml and a temperature of 39-40 degrees.
After the symptoms of the disease are minimized, physiotherapy exercises aimed at improving blood circulation in the pelvis are indicated.
The general scheme of therapy
How to treat a specific case is decided by the urologist, the general scheme includes:
- determination of the pathogen and culture of susceptibility to antibiotics for the selection of the optimal drug (if there is suitable equipment in the laboratory, in most cases a broad-spectrum antibiotic is simply prescribed),
- the appointment of auxiliary drugs that relieve pain and other manifestations of the disease,
- scheduling physiotherapeutic procedures - warming up, prostate massage, mud therapy.
In acute course, the patient can be hospitalized, the chronic form is treated on an outpatient basis.
Types of vesiculitis - acute and chronic
If we take the disease course as a criterion, an acute and chronic form of vesiculitis is distinguished
The acute form of vesiculitis - by its nature is sudden. A rapid onset of temperature occurs, and the patient experiences general weakness. All this is accompanied by headache and fatigue.
The most sensitive colic in the pelvic area, which is noticeable during replenishment of the bladder and the manifestation of ejaculation. Basically, an array of discomfort is located in the inguinal and sacral areas. The night is accompanied by frequent erections and blood is noticeable in semen.
Often, the patient takes vesiculitis for an exacerbated form of prostatitis - this is a common mistake.
Chronic form - observed in medical practice very often and manifests itself in the form of an aggravated form of a complicated type.
The basic signs of this manifestation are aching pains near the pelvis and perineum, the feeling of orgasm is reduced up to its absence, and difficulties arise in ejaculation (hypospermia, accelerated ejaculation). The quality of the seminal fluid decreases.
In addition to all of the above, the disease tends to manifest itself in a more serious form with untimely treatment. For example, pus may accumulate in the seed tubercles. In this case, the patient's well-being is classified as severe, and the thermometer thermometer can show 40 ° C. In such a situation, urgent intervention by a surgeon is recommended.
Complications and consequences
With inaction at the stage of empyema (suppuration), the infected fluid can enter the neighboring organs or abdominal cavity, which leads to the formation of fistulas, peritonitis and sepsis. They are accompanied by severe intoxication, pain, if you do not take measures - a fatal outcome is possible.
A long chronic course leads to the spread of infection to the prostate gland, drying out of the vesicles and subsequent infertility. Complete impotence is the most common consequence, since many men are in no hurry to treat sluggish spermatocystitis.
Signs of Vesiculitis
There are practically no special manifestations of vesiculitis, it follows that you need to be careful about the diagnosis of this disease. Pain in the groin, perineum and pelvic area may be the first signs of vesiculitis.
If there are pains when filling the bladder, this can serve as a “beacon”. Therefore, if you feel any of the above - immediately inform the urologist.
In addition to specific symptoms, such as pain during ejaculation and blood in semen, vesiculitis affects general immunity, causing weakness and temperature.
You must understand that most sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic, and if you become infected, fight the disease in the early stages.
Consequences of vesiculitis if untreated
In the absence of treatment for vesiculitis there is a sad picture: from emergency surgery to infertility. The infection can also move along the ascending paths, and then the epididymis can be affected, which often leads to epididymitis.
Vesiculitis - the disease is by no means a joke, and if you do not monitor your health and listen to your body, there is a high probability of an advanced stage of the disease.
As the above examples show, the consequences can be deplorable, however, if you start the treatment procedure in time and consult a doctor, it is highly likely that the body will normalize with virtually no consequences.