Islam in Kuzbass
Circumcision, or scientific circumcision, is the procedure for excising the foreskin. Currently, there are several types of circumcision proposed by different surgeons.
Medical research indicates the important preventive medical hygiene value of circumcision. For this reason, many non-Jews and non-Muslims circumcise their children at an early age. Today circumcision is the most common surgical operation in the United States, about 80% of America’s newborn boys undergo it. In Israel, this figure is 98%. Surgeons specializing in andrology conduct this operation.
The injunction of the prophets and messengers
Circumcision on the 7th day, not counting the birthday, is a prescription of the prophets and messengers of Allah.
It is very important for Muslims to circumcise boys on the seventh day after birth. The hadith says: "Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) circumcised his grandchildren Hassan and Hussein on the seventh day after birth". (Al-Mujam al-sagir at-Tabarani No. 891)
حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن الوليد البغدادي حدثنا محمد بن أبي السري العسقلاني حدثنا الوليد بن مسلم عن زهير بن محمد عن محمد بن المنكدر عن جابر : أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عق عن الحسن والحسين وختنهما لسبعة أيام
With adulthood, circumcision becomes mandatory for a Muslim.
Of particular importance is the rite of circumcision in Judaism. The Jews strictly adhere to this requirement and circumcise male infants on the eighth day after birth.
But Russian Muslims, unfortunately, show some neglect and even negligence in following this important Sunna, postponing this procedure until a later date, although they should have been more strict in this matter than the Jews. Some circumcise their sons when they are already several years old, and the children already understand what is happening.
In many ways, the fact that Russian Muslims circumcise their children with delay was facilitated by our communist past. Although even then there was no strict ban on circumcision, still some tried to commit it behind the scenes and when the child was 3-6 years old or more, while others completely left their children without this important and extremely necessary operation.
If the performance of this rite was postponed, parents are faced with various problems. The older the child, the more difficult it is for him to undergo this operation. If the boy is already several years old, parents have to explain to him what this process is. They prepare their son for this rite, come up with different stories. But still, for a child this is psychological stress. In general, circumcision at an early age is useful in that the child, when he begins to become aware of himself and his body, takes this for granted, and he has the feeling that he was born like that. A completely different picture is when this procedure is done at an age when the child is already well aware of himself. For boys, this is a kind of shock. They are forced to experience these painful sensations, fears may appear. Of course, the psyche of the child is restored, but is it worth it to abuse?
Do not delay cropping
Some Muslims, including in the North Caucasus, have decided to arrange large feasts with drinking alcohol on the occasion of circumcision of the child. Naturally, drinking alcohol is prohibited according to Sharia.
Not all parents can set up such banquets with inviting guests, even without drinking alcohol, and they save money for a feast, put off circumcision for the child, and accordingly the sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) is postponed.
Parents or guardians should be prudent in this matter and, in accordance with the requirements of religion, circumcise children on the seventh day after birth. Performing the Sunna, parents ensure the physical safety of the child and create acceptable conditions for his healthy growth.
The only serious reason for postponing circumcision may be the boy's weakness and medical conditions. In this case, circumcision can be postponed until the doctors allow.
Hitan (Arabic. ختان), Khatna (Arabic. ختنة), sunnat - The Islamic term for the rite of circumcision, which is a truncation of the foreskin. Islamic theologians are still arguing about whether circumcision is a desirable or mandatory action for all male Muslims. A mandatory date for circumcision does not exist, but it is advisable to perform it in early childhood. In cases where boys are born without foreskin circumcision is not necessary for them.
Unlike the Jewish tradition, where circumcision is a covenant between God and people, in Islam this rite is less symbolic. In Islam, circumcision is part of the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad, as well as a symbol of belonging to Islam. Muslims are currently the largest religious group practicing circumcision. Circumcision is not a condition for adopting Islam, and for those who converted to Islam at an older age, circumcision is not necessary.
Appeal to parents and doctors
It is advisable that circumcision be carried out after consultation with a doctor who understands the importance and obligatory nature of circumcision.
In those regions where the overwhelming majority of Muslims live, it would be worthwhile to create conditions for circumcision in maternity hospitals before discharging infants from the hospital.
When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Medina, he discovered that the Jews on the 10th day of the month of Muharram (the day of Ashur) fasted. He asked them about the reason for this fast, and they replied that this is the day on which Allah sank the pharaoh and saved the Prophet Musa (peace be upon him). Therefore, they hold it in fasting in gratitude to Almighty Allah. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “We are closer to Musa than you,” and from that day he also began to glorify the day of Ashura by fasting.
Similarly, on the issue of circumcision, Muslims must get ahead of the Jews in following the precepts of God's prophets and messengers. Do circumcision in a timely manner on the Sunnah and do not delay it. When your children grow up, they will be grateful to you.
In addition to male circumcision, female circumcision is also practiced. It also has a very beneficial effect on the female body. This topic is very rarely discussed because of its delicacy.
Many scientists believe that female circumcision is a must.
There are scholars who argue that circumcision is desirable for girls and mandatory for boys.
Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawood give from Usaym ibn Kulyayb, who transfers this from his father, and that from his grandfather, that he came to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) and said: “I have already accepted Islam". Then the Messenger of Allah told him (peace and blessings be upon him): “Throw off the hair of unbelief"- or said:"Shave them". And another person told me that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) told him: “Throw off the hair of unbelief and circumcise».
The imams of Bukhari and Muslim are told in their Sahihs from Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) called for five things: circumcision, shaving of the pubis, shortening of the mustache, cutting of nails and plucking of hair from the armpits ".
Among the prophets (peace be upon them), not only the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was born without foreskin, but also 13 more prophets. Here are their names: Adam, Shis, Nukh, Shuayb, Lut, Musa, Hood, Salih, Yusuf, Zakaria, Hanzal, Yahya and Sulayman (peace be upon them all). (Ianatu-t-Talibin 4/173)
فآدم شيث ثم نوح بنيه شعيب للوط في الحقيقة قد تلا وموسى وهود ثم صالح بعده ويوسف زكرياء فافهم لتفضلا وحنظلة يحيى سليمان مكملا لعدتهم في الخلف جاء لمن تلا
According to Islamic tradition, the prophet Ibrahim was the first person to perform the rite of circumcision on the orders of the Most High. In the Sahihah al-Bukhari and Muslim, hadiths are given in which the Prophet Muhammad says that the Prophet Ibrahim personally circumcised at the age of eighty. During the time of the Prophet Muhammad, circumcision was practiced by most Arab tribes, including pagan Arabs. According to Ibn Abbas, people from the time of the jahiliya circumcised their children when they reached the age of majority
According to Islamic tradition, the prophet Muhammad himself was born without foreskin. Many of the associates of the Prophet Muhammad circumcised when they converted to Islam. Prophet Muhammad circumcised his grandchildren on the seventh day after their birth.
Circumcision is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but some Islamic scholars believe that circumcision is implied in the 124th verse of Sura Al-Bakar:
Remember how Lord Ibrahim experienced the commandments and how he fulfilled them.
According to some Muslim theologians, one of these commandments was the practice of circumcision.
Circumcision in Christianity
January 14, the Russian Orthodox Church celebrates the day on which Jesus Christ (peace be upon him) was circumcised in accordance with the precept of God, obligatory for all male babies from the time of Abraham (peace be upon him). Christian tradition says that the ceremony was performed on the eighth day after birth, while the baby was given the name Jesus.
According to the interpretation of the Church, Jesus (peace be upon him) accepted circumcision in order to show people an example of rigorous fulfillment of divine ordinances and so that no one could later doubt that he was a true person.
The festival of the circumcision of Christ (peace be upon him) refers to the great holidays of Christians. According to tradition, a moleben with kneeling is performed on this day. In Christianity, circumcision is not prohibited, but it is not particularly practiced.
Features of circumcision among Muslims and why do this rite in Islam?
Removal of the foreskin was popular thousands of years ago.
Do Muslims circumcise?
In the modern world, circumcision is practiced in many Muslim countries and is often an integral element of familiarization with Islam and its traditions.
Hadith about circumcision
Despite the fact that circumcision is not mentioned in the Qur'an, the second main source of Islamic law contains, though mean, but interesting information about the rite of circumcision.
- “Fitra means five (actions) or five (actions) make fitra: circumcision (hitan), shaving of pubic hair (ishikhdad), cutting of nails (taklim al-azfar), pulling of hair under the armpits (natf al-ybt) and cutting mustache (kas al-sharib) »
- “After the two circumcised parts meet (or according to another version: after one circumcised part touched the other) - complete ablution (ghusl) becomes mandatory”
- “Circumcision (chitan) is the“ sunnah ”(very desirable action) for men and the“ macrum ”(noble action) for women”
What is Muslim circumcision?
The holy traditions say that circumcision of Muslim men is an integral part of the Sunnah (spiritual path) of the prophet Muhammad himself, as well as his predecessors.
The very first prophet who went through circumcision in Islam (chitan) was Ibrahim (in the Bible he is known as Abraham). According to collections of hadiths (Muslim legends), Ibrahim removed the foreskin, already being eighty years old.
It is also known from the same sources that on the seventh day after the birth of his grandchildren, he killed the sheep and personally removed the foreskin from the children.
At what age are Muslims circumcised? Traditionally, among all peoples who believe in Allah and his prophet, circumcision was performed before the boys came of age.
There is evidence that even at the beginning of our era, the Arabs, Persians, Turks did not neglect the rite even in the time of the Ottoman Empire. The Muslim circumcision festival was necessarily accompanied by ritual sacrifices.
The Holy Book - the Qur'an - remains completely silent about Muslim circumcision. However, other ancient sources describe the rite of circumcision in Islam and argue its necessity in sufficient detail.
What is the name of Muslim circumcision? Khitan, as we said above. We figured out the essence of circumcision among Muslims, then you can see how congratulations on circumcision among Muslims take place.
Below is a photo of the circumcision of Muslims:
Now that you have seen in the photo how male Muslims are circumcised, let's talk about the terminology of this rite.
Asceticism in the life of Muslims
One of the key provisions of Islam is the idea of a person as a social being, the development of which can only proceed through the involvement of a person in public life. At the same time, the concept of abstinence (zuhd) plays an important role in the formation of the personality of a practicing Muslim, which involves a person leading a simple life that is not sharpened by the endless acquisition of luxury goods, meaningless raising of status and affluence. In the life of a believer, these things can be significant - for example, for the implementation of an important project - but they cannot be replaced by the values of piety, obedience to the will of the Almighty in any case.
Islam is based on the values of moderation, the abstinence of one’s own passions and the correction of mistakes made. Although asceticism as such is inherent in the Islamic system of values, it does not imply a rejection of what is permitted by the Almighty and becoming a hermit. At the same time, the believer does not become a captive of the worldly, putting him in the first place. To some extent, his life is a constant search for the necessary balance in the relationship between the secular and the eternal. This is precisely what the very remarkable hadith of the Prophet Muhammad testifies to (peace be upon him): “The best of you are those people who do not abandon the worldly things for the sake of the eternal, and the eternal ones for the things of the world” (cites Anas). Thus, a Muslim sees in worldly blessings an instrument for realizing Quranic appeals for improving the world around him, for doing good deeds, which will allow him to achieve Allah's contentment on Judgment Day. The seclusion and full dedication of oneself to God in the Islamic system of values has neither practical nor spiritual benefits.
The commemoration is a religious innovation and the custom of times of ignorance, and the argument in favor of this is the words of a companion Jarir ibn ‘Abdallah al-Badzhali:" We believed that the meeting in the house of the deceased and treating guests after the funeral are a manifestation of the forbidden lamentation of the deceased. " This was reported by Ahmad (6905) and Ibn Majah (1612), but the version of the latter does not contain the words "after the funeral." Sheikh Ahmad Shakir called the hadith authentic.
Muslim lawyers are unanimous that cooking for those who come to express condolences is at least undesirable Ibn ‘Abidin. Kurra T. 1.P. 246, Ansari. Asna al-matalib. T. 1. S. 335, McDeady. Furu ‘. T. 2.P. 230-231. Imam al-Shafiqi writes: “I consider it undesirable to hold a commemoration, that is, to gather in the house of the deceased, even if the congregation does not cry, because it renews sadness and causes trouble” Shafiqi. Umm. T. 2.P. 638.
Despite this, the custom of celebrating commemoration was widespread among Muslims. Wake celebrate on the third, seventh and fortieth day after death, sometimes people gather every Thursday before the expiration of forty days. In various regions, customs have developed to offer those present certain types of refreshments, to read certain prayers or suras from the Koran. Sometimes the commemoration is organized on such a scale that they differ little from the wedding feast. All this is a consequence of religious illiteracy, and religious leaders are required to do everything possible to rectify the situation. They should explain to people that the deceased needs the good deeds of his children and that they can help him earn the forgiveness of Allah. They can pray for him, fulfill his vow, give alms or make a pilgrimage on his behalf, etc.As for the commemoration, they not only do not benefit him, but are also an innovation that is rejected by Allah Almighty.
At the same time, it must be taken into account that many people today consider commemoration a part of religious tradition. Young people grew up on these customs and the elderly grew old. Therefore, when clarifying this issue, it is necessary to take into account a number of religious, psychological and social factors, as well as to relate the benefits and harms of the possible consequences. The censure of the reprehensible must not be allowed to be accompanied by disrespect for elders or lead to the breakdown of family ties or to conflicts in the family or society, because such consequences are worse and more dangerous than many of the religious innovations that need to be corrected. And help in all matters comes only from Allah!
Are tombstones allowed?
During the time of the Prophet Muhammad, Muslims did not erect tombstones and did not erect monuments or domes over the graves. On the contrary, they insisted that the graves should not be too high. Muslim’s “Sahih” contains the story of Abu al-Hayaj that al-Asadi told that Ali ibn Abu Talib told him: “Would you send me with what the Messenger of Allah sent me at one time. Seeing any image, immediately destroy it, and when you see any elevated grave, level it with the ground. " Imam al-Navawi wrote: “According to the Sunnah, the grave should not rise much above the ground and should not have the appearance of a hillock, but should be flat and rise by one inch. Al-Shafiqi and those who agreed with him believed so. According to Kadi ‘Iyad, most scholars preferred the grave to have the appearance of a mound. This opinion was held by Malik. ”
The last judgment seems to us the most preferable, since this was precisely the grave of the Prophet himself. Al-Bukhari said from the words of Sufyan al-Tammar: "I saw that the graves of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and‘ Umar were towering like hillocks. "
Consequently, the grave should not be completely flattened to the ground, so that people take care of it and show respect for the deceased. Imam al-Shafiqi said: “I like it when a grave is covered only with the earth that came out of it. Otherwise, the grave becomes very high. And I like it when the grave rises above the ground by one inch or something. ”
It is allowed to mark the grave with a stone or something similar, so that the relatives of the deceased can easily identify it. For the same purpose, the edges of the grave may be overlaid with clay. When asked about this by Imam Ahmad, he said: “I hope there is nothing wrong with that.” Al-Hassan al-Basri and Imam al-Shafiqi were also allowed to do so.
However, Sharia forbids the installation of tombstones, plastering graves, erecting structures on them, drawing images of the deceased on them and making inscriptions. Muslim said from the words of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah forbade plastering the graves, sitting on them and erecting any structures on them. The version of at-Tirmizi added: "... and make inscriptions on it." He called this version good and reliable.
‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz forbade bricking the grave. Al-Aswad b. Yazid also bequeathed not to brick his grave. According to Ibrahim, the associates did not approve of such an act. The reason for this is that the deceased do not need tombstones and expensive monuments, and cemeteries are the place where people come to remember the dead and remember the finiteness of earthly life. Al-Bukhari said that Ibn ‘Umar saw how a tent was erected on the grave of‘ Abd al-Rahman (the son of Abu Bakr al-Siddik) and said: “Son, remove him, verily, he is in the shadow of his deeds.”
The Sunnah is prescribed on the seventh day after the birth of the child to give him a name. Preferably, first give the name of the child, and then commit for (‘akika). The father has the primary right to name the child, then his father (grandfather of the child), then the mother of the child.
It is the duty of the parents to give their child not only a good upbringing based on the principles of godly fear and faith, but also a beautiful name that has good value. The favorite name for this is Abdullah then ‘Abdurahman. Then the best names are all the names that begin with ‘Abdu. The value of these names is that in these names there is the name of Allah, His attributes, as well as the name that most closely corresponds to the slaves, that is, indicates that he is a slave - “‘ abdu ”.
Especially many advantages are in the child’s gripe with the name. It is reported that on the Day of Judgment, out of respect to the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), people with the name Muhammad will be told: “Get up and go to Paradise”(Except for those who are sinners, oppressors and newcomers in religion). Ahmad is also a valuable, worthy name.
It is undesirable to give children like Shihab (shooting star), Harb (war), Murrat (bitter). It is also undesirable to give the names Barakat (grace), Aflah (prosperous), Rabah (profit), Yasar - (welfare), Mubarak (gracious), because when someone asks: “Is he there?”, But he is not there it turns out, they will say to him: “He is not,” that is, there is no grace, profit, and so on.
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade calling children the names of idols or other names that, in their meaning, contradict the canons of Islam.
Therefore, it is forbidden to give the children the name Malikul-muluk (ruler of rulers), since this is the name of Allah. It is also forbidden to give children the names ‘Abdunabiyyi (slave of the prophet),‘ Abdukaabati (slave of the Kaaba), ‘Abduddar (slave of the house). It is also forbidden to give children the name Shahinshah, as it means “ruler of rulers”.
Some scholars say that it is undesirable to give children names such as Jarullah (neighbor of Allah), Rafikullah (friend of Allah). And other scientists write that this is even forbidden.
If the child has an ugly, bad name, then you should change this name to a beautiful one. The hadith says: “On Judgment Day you will be called by your names, so call children beautiful names».
Recently, there has been a tendency to call their children sonorous names that were adopted from other cultures, in particular, from the West. Some Muslims call their children the names of unfaithful artists, movie heroes. This is an absolutely inappropriate act for a Muslim. Before you give a name to your child , you need to ask about its semantic meaning, to determine whether it is permissible according to the norms of Islam, you should not rely only on the beauty of sound. Are there few beautiful names of venerable people: Muhammad, Ahmad, Isa, Ibrahim, Musa . Also in respectable women: Khadijat, ‘Aishat, Fatimat, Maryam, Asiyat , and etc.
Do not forget that the child is a living person who will have to live with this name in the company of other people, and he will also be called under that name.
“There is no shame in the knowledge of religion ...”
There should not be excessive modesty when asked a question regarding life practice, even if it is a question of.
The wife of the prophet Muhammad ‘Aisha once said:“ How beautiful the women of Medina are! Their modesty did not prevent them from becoming literate in matters of faith. ” Also, one of the most learned people of the first generation (tabiun), Mujahid, said: "Two will not gain knowledge: too modest and arrogant."
To alleviate some of the reader’s embarrassment and inconvenience, as well as to prove that questions about the intimate relations of spouses are asked not only in Russia, I will give an abridged version of the question that was asked by one of the modern theologians, Yusuf al-Qardawi: “We are Muslim the Arabs. We have been living in North America for many years. Often we communicate with Muslims of various nationalities, including representatives of the indigenous population of America who converted to Islam. When communicating, many questions arise, among which there are many such that we have never encountered in Arab society. Such issues include intimate relationships between spouses. For example, “can a husband and wife completely expose themselves during copulation?” Or “can a husband look at the genitals of the wife and the wife at the genitals of the husband?” And much more, which is inconvenient for us even to ask openly. ”
Yusuf al-Qaradawi gave the following answer: “Usually in Arab society this kind of questions do not arise, this is not customary to talk about. However, where excessive permissiveness flourishes, public nakedness and the streets are full of what is categorically unacceptable from the point of view of religious morality, people appear to have some indifference to the opposite sex, family relationships are getting colder.
Previously, we all answered “it is forbidden”, relying on the norms of Arab morality and those hadiths that we heard from the preachers, but not from theologians. Then we learned that much in Islam is not as categorical as we imagined it. ”
Al-Qaradawi’s response included the following words: “It is strictly unacceptable to rely on personal, national or geographical sympathies-antipathies regarding the canons of faith, especially when it comes to aspiring Muslims and issues of compulsory or categorical prohibition.”
I want to immediately notice that the hadith “Permitted is known, forbidden is known, and between them is doubtful. Who goes into doubtful, he fell into the forbidden " - it is reliable, “doubtful” can be that what theologians indirectly consider as ayahs and hadiths, or what a person considers personally doubtful. Concerning the general state of things, "everything that is forbidden is permitted." This is a canonical rule based on the provisions of the Holy Quran and. Also, one of the reliable hadiths says that what the Creator does not say is a mercy for believers, and not what is left out of oblivion. The issue of intimate relations of spouses is clearly not an exception to the mentioned rule, as Islamic theologians of the past and present speak about.
The system given to us by the Almighty has answers to all questions. The Qur'an and the Sunna contain either general rules under which situations are brought in that partially change over time, or stipulate specific situations that are stable and unchangeable.
In any book on Islamic law (usul-fiqh) you can read that permission is the basis of everything, that is, what is not prohibited by canons is permitted. This rule is based on the Qur'an and Sunnah.
What is allowed and what is forbidden in intimate relations of Muslim spouses?
In intimate life, prohibitions concern only conjugal intercourse during the menstrual cycle, in the postpartum period, in the state of ihram (a state of ritual purity during pilgrimage), as well as anal intercourse. The rest - time, form, frequency - at the discretion and mutual consent of the wife and husband.
Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
- “Cursed is he who has sexual intercourse with his wife through the anus,”
“Whoever has sexual intercourse with his wife during the menstrual period is through the vagina, or through the anus at any time, or comes to the predictor and believes his words, he becomes unbelieving in relation to what Muhammad came with.”
A quote from the eight-volume Islamic fiqh encyclopedia: “All forms of sexual satisfaction between husband and wife are allowed, except for using the anus, which is forbidden (haram).”
As for the moral side of this issue, the spouses are given freedom of choice within the framework that is stipulated. To date, many divorces are due to sexual incompatibility. Although the reason is not serious, it can be easily solved: common ground can always be found. In Islam, intimate relationships between future spouses are prohibited, and this does not in any way contradict the nature of a person, since freedom in sexual relations after marriage is left to their discretion, given that they are loved by each other and married, primarily because of intellectual and worldview compatibility. Between them there is no shyness, misunderstanding and lack of agreement. Through openness, spouses determine what is acceptable and immoral for them.
In the Holy Quran there is an ayah that partially touches on this topic. “Partially,” as it relates to that part of sexual acts that are performed with the intention of increasing offspring, by the grace of the Almighty. “Your wives are a cornfield for you, and approach your cornfield as you wish at your own discretion” (), that is, using all kinds of options, as long as you have enough imagination and opportunities. You can find this explanation in tafsirs, comments on the Holy Quran.
So, non-prohibition does not mean compulsory adherence to one or another institution or practice. At the same time, if the application of the aforementioned actions helps to improve mutual understanding between spouses, then this is rewarded, because, having physical and psychological satisfaction within the family, the wife or husband is not looking for this on the side. Full mutual understanding helps maintain family integrity. Treason is punishment. Fidelity is rewarded: “And even your intimate relationship with your spouse is alms,” said the Prophet. Companions in perplexity asked: “A man satisfies his carnal desires and receives a reward for this before God !?” The Messenger of the Lord replied: “Do you not understand that if he had relationships on the side, you would be sinful (this would be considered to him a sin ) !? And having a halal (permitted) intimate relationship with his wife, he will be rewarded like a wife and husband, and will be rewarded before God. This will be recorded as a beneficence in the personal business of a man or woman and will be on the chalice of good deeds on Judgment Day! ”
What is not prohibited, if used correctly, may be applicable, and a person has the right to free choice.
General questions about the intimate life of Muslims
I married a Muslim woman five years ago, converted to Islam, but not by conviction, but for the sake of my wife, whom I loved very much. I am trying to understand Islam, but for me it is very difficult so far.
My question is intimate. As I already wrote, we have been married for five years, and sometimes we want to diversify our sex life. I know that anal intercourse is prohibited according to Muslim canons. And even after complete ritual washing, the body is not considered clean for prayer. Is it so? If I want just such sex and my wife agrees to this, so that my husband can do something nice, is it considered a sin for her? Or is sin only on me? Sergei.
1. Anal intercourse is prohibited, you are right.
2. "And even after complete ritual washing, the body is not considered clean for prayer" - this is not.
3. This is considered a sin. Diversify the intimate part of family life in other ways.
Does fingering go into anal intercourse?
Is it true that a husband is forbidden to drink his wife’s milk? If so, then what is the prohibition based on?
Definitely not prohibited. The permissibility of this is mentioned in books on Muslim theology.
1. Is it possible to study, according to books, for example, different poses of sexual intercourse?
2. If so, is it possible to study them from graphic drawings? A., 20 years old.
1. It is possible, together with the spouse, especially if it harmonizes family relationships and brings diversity to intimate life, removing from the search for something similar on the side, which often happens in the realities of our lives.
Can a husband and wife film their intimate relationships and watch together, realizing their fantasies?
This should not be done, as the recording may fall into the wrong hands.
Is it allowed to moan a Muslim and a Muslim woman during an intimate relationship? Amina and Abdullah.
Is it possible to enlarge the penis if there is no harm to health? But not by the operational method. Ali.
I think you should not go by artificial penis enlargement. It is not known what this can lead you to in ten or twenty years. There are many other ways enriching the harmony of intrafamily intimate relationships. Attention should be paid to their study and practice.
If a Muslim has two wives, can he engage in conjugal duties simultaneously with both?
It’s not that “engaging in marital duties,” or even just sleeping on all three in the same bed, is strictly not allowed. Each of the families should have their own separate housing. Separate and identical.
Question regarding zihara. Sometimes husband and wife joke and flirt with each other. For example, sometimes a husband plays the role of a little boy as a joke, and the spouse is like his mother, and the husband tells her: “Take me in your arms”, imitating the children. However, sometimes joking, you wonder if you have committed a zihar? Sometimes, because of this question, you lose sleep and become nervous. After all, if this is a zihar, then before redemption your wife becomes forbidden to you. Abdullah, 30 years old.
If this helps to develop and maintain family harmony, sometimes turns your family life into a funny joke that makes everyone happy and fun, then you can enjoy such a game. Do not think it over, especially when it leads to sleep disturbance and family calmness. The jokes and games you mentioned (az-zihar) do not apply.
Are available are there any prohibitions on posture during sex? Pleased.
There are definitely no bans.
Is it possible to have intimacy with my wife during fasting?
Is it allowed to enter into intimate relations with her husband during the month of Ramadan at night (after conversation)? A dispute arose about pregnancy this month - they say that in this holy month neither day nor night can spouses copulate. It is a sin. Is it true?
It is not true. The Holy Quran says:
“You are allowed to have intimate relationships with spouses at night on fasting days. They are wives - clothes for you, and you husbands - clothes for them. Allah (God, the Lord) knows that you deceived yourself, and He forgave you, has mercy on you. Now you can have intimacy with them, strive for what is prescribed to you. Eat, drink until you can distinguish between a white thread and a black one, until a dividing line appears between the coming day and the leaving night at dawn. And then fast until the night before sunset, refraining from eating, drinking and intimate relationships with your spouse. And do not have intimate relationships with spouses when you are in mosques in a state itikyafa . These are the boundaries outlined by the Almighty; do not approach them, do not cross the prohibitions. Thus, Allah (God, the Lord) reveals His signs to people, perhaps they will become pious ”().
See: Al-Bukhari M. Sahih al-Bukhari. In 5 vol. T. 1.P. 68.
See, for example: al-‘Aini B. ‘Umda al-kari sharh sahih al-bukhari. In 20 vol. T. 2.P. 183.
Some preachers use unreliable hadiths or parables to make the sermon more convincing and penetrating. Theologians adhere more strictly to the letter of the law in quotations and comments.
See: al-Kardawi Yu. Fatava mu‘asyr. T. 2.P. 350-353.
The Fakihs (Muslim theologians) say that "if there is no evidence in favor of the ban, then it is done in a way that is convenient for man." See: al-Nadwa A. al-kawahid al-fiqhiyya Canonical rules. Damascus: al-Qalyam, 1991.S. 107, 108.
This refers to the “unconditional” that was or could have been during the time of the Prophet Muhammad, but no explicit prohibition or explicit permission about this was affirmed anywhere. As for those things that later appeared in the practice of people, theologians here give conclusions (fatwas), taking into account scientific achievements, as well as canonical norms and rules.
In the Holy Quran or through the Sunna of the Prophet.
In a reliable hadith it is said: “Verily, Allah (God, the Lord) has established the mandatory provisions (farda), so do not lose them! Outlined the boundaries of a certain number of daily obligatory prayers, prayers, for example, a certain form of observance of the obligatory fasting and the number of days, specific punishments for specific crimes, etc., so do not cross, do not break them, do not complicate, do not tighten! He, the Lord of the worlds, forbade certain things, for example, clear sin, such as theft, lies, foul language, so do not commit them! And He kept silent about other things, not out of forgetfulness, but out of mercy to you. So do not organize the same searches (studies) regarding them to clarify the obligation or prohibition. They refer to the permitted, because everything that is not prohibited by the direct text of the Qur'an or the authentic Sunna remains by default permitted. ” Hadith from Abu Sahljab al-Khushaniy, St. x al-Dar Kutni, al-Hakim, and also this is the thirtieth hadith of the “forty hadiths of Imam al-Navawi.” See, for example: Nuzha al-Muttakyn. Sharh riyad as-salikhin Walk of the righteous. Commentary on the book "Gardens of the Elite." In 2 volumes of Beirut: ar-Risal, 2000. T. 2. P. 457, 458, hadith No. 25/1834 and an explanation to it, Zaglyul M. Mavsu'a atraf al-hadith an-nabawi al-sharif The encyclopedia began noble prophetic utterances. In 11 vol. Beirut: al-Fikr, 1994. T. 3.P. 166, al-Kari ‘A. (He died in 1014 in Hijra). Mirkat al-mafatih sharh mishkat al-masabih. In 10 tons of Beirut: al-Fikr, 2002. T. 1. S. 278, hadith No. 197 and an explanation to it.
See, for example, al-Bhuta R. Ma‘a an-us. Mushavarat va fatava. S. 74-76, 84, al-Kardawi Yu. Fatava mu‘asyra. T. 2.P. 354, 354.
The postpartum period ends with the completion of the bleeding. Hanafi theologians said: “There is no limit to the minimum. A maximum of forty days. ” Shafiite theologians state: “Minimum is instant. A maximum of sixty days. Usually forty days. " See: al-Margynani B. Al-hida leadership. In 2 vols., 4 hours. Beirut: al-Qutub al-Gilmiyya, 1990. T. 1. Part 1. P. 36, al-Khatib al-Shirbiniy Sh. Mugni al-mukhtaj Enriching the needy. In 6 t. Egypt: al-Maktaba at-tavfikiyya, b. g. T. 1. S. 244. Also see: al-Shavkiani M. Neil al-authar. T. 1. Part 1. S. 304, 305, Hadith No. 390.
Hadith from Abu Huraira. See: Abu Dawood S. Sunan Abi Dawood The Hadith Code of Abu Dawood. Riyadh: al-Afkar ad-dawlia, 1999. S. 245, hadith No. 2162, “Hassan”, al-Suyuta J. Al-jami ‘al-sagyr. S. 501, Hadith No. 8204, Sahih.
Intimate relations between husband and wife are allowed during menstruation, they can bring each other to orgasm, ejaculation. The main thing is not to use the vagina (only during menstruation and in the postpartum period) and the anus (generally prohibited). For more details see, for example: al-Bukhari M. Sahih al-Bukhari Code of Hadith of Imam al-Bukhari. In 5 volumes of Beirut: al-Maktaba al-'asriya, 1997. T. 1. P. 114 and 115, hadiths No. 300, 302 and 303, al-'Askalyani A. Fath al-bari bi sharh sahih al-bukhari The discovery by the Creator (for a person in the understanding of the new) through comments on the set of hadiths of al-Bukhari. In the 18 t. Beirut: al-Qutub al-Gilmiya, 2000. Vol. 2. P. 531-533, hadiths 300, 302 and 303 and an explanation to them.
Hadith from Abu Huraira. See: Ibn Majah M. Sunan Code of Hadith. Riyadh: al-Afkar ad-dawlia, 1999. P. 79, Hadith No. 639, “Sahih”, Janan I. Hadith ansiklopedisy. Qutub sitte. T. 10.P. 346, Hadith No. 3823.
The latest edition of the encyclopedia for 1997 consists of 11 volumes.
See: al-Zuhaili V. Al-fiqh al-Islami wa adillatuh. In 8 vol. T. 3.P. 551.
Niva is a sown field. In this context, it is an allegory, a metaphor, a figurative expression implying an intimate relationship between husband and wife.
St. x Muslim. See: al-Naisaburi M. Sahih muslim Code of Hadith of Imam Muslim. Riyadh: al-Afkar ad-davliya, 1998. P. 389, hadith No. 53- (1006), al-Navawi Y. Sahih muslim bi sharh al-navawi Code of hadiths of imam Muslim with commentary by imam al-Navawi. In 10 vol., 18 h. Beirut: al-Qutub al-Gilmiyya, b. g. T. 4. Part 7. S. 91-93, hadith No. 53- (1006) and an explanation to it, Nuzha al-Muttakyn. Sharh riyad as-salikhin Walk of the righteous. Commentary on the book "Gardens of the Elite." In 2 tons of Beirut: ar-Risal, 2000. Vol. 1. P. 121, hadith No. 4/120.
See, for example: al-Zuhaili V. Al-fiqh al-Islami wa adilyatuh. In 11 vol. T. 9.P. 6594.
“If you say to your wives that they are like the backs of your mothers, then that does not make them your mothers” (St. Quran, 33: 4).
In the pre-Islamic period, the husband’s words about his wife “you are like my mother’s back” symbolized a divorce, and the final and forever. The Qur'anic text has been canceled. Henceforth, husband and wife in such cases could restore family relations, but only after redemption: either (1) release of involuntary, or (2) continuous two-month fasting, or (3) one-time feeding of sixty beggars. Priority is consistent. This atonement is a kind of punishment so that people do not scatter inappropriate words. See, for example: St. Quran, 58: 1-4, al-Zuhaili V. At-tafsir al-munir. In 17 vol. T. 11.P. 256.
Initially, during the month of fasting, there was a ban on intimate relationships not only in the daytime, but also partially at night. Subsequently, as the revelations were sent, this was canceled. Some during the ban on intimate relationships at night (after sleep) violated it by their weakness and then repented of the Almighty. He forgave them the misconduct and lifted the ban. For more details see, for example: al-Zuhayli V. At-tafsir al-Munir. In 17 vol. T. 1.P. 515, 522.
At night (from the time of sunset to the dawn), eating and sexual relations are fully allowed (with spouse).
- This is a special, spiritualized, aimed at replenishing vital and spiritual strength, the fasting stay in the mosque with the intention of being in it. Islamic scholars are unanimous that the ikikaf in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan for men is a sunnah, that is, a desirable action.
Read more about itikaf in my book “All About Muslim Fasting and Kurban Bayram.”
As you know, the Muslim faith allows a man to have up to four wives. True, only if he can provide them all. During the existence of the Russian Empire, there were no obstacles to this tradition. However, with the advent of Soviet power, polygamy was forced to go underground, but it did not disappear at all.
The law is harsh
Polygamy, which flourished in Central Asia and the Caucasus, was officially banned immediately after the Civil War in 1921. By a separate law, the country's authorities also prohibited receiving kalym for a wife in the Turkestan ASSR. Nevertheless, for about five years everything remained as before until in 1926 an article was punished in the criminal code of the RSFSR punishing for polygamy. Moreover, marriages concluded before 1926, in which the husband had several wives, were recognized as legal. The Soviet authorities naively believed that in the new system, with the departure from religious life, the inhabitants of Central Asia themselves would refuse polygamy in the family. Alas, this did not happen, since for any Muslim man the traditions of his ancestors are above any secular laws. In reality, polygamy simply went underground. In addition, the presence of several wives was not as common as is commonly believed. The fact is that only a wealthy person could afford a second wife, while the poor, who were the majority, even married only by the age of forty with their first marriage. The second wife in the Soviet years in Central Asia could be afforded only by large party and business leaders, who did not present special problems to circumvent the law.
Husband - yes, right - no
As a rule, in Central Asia during the existence of the Soviet Union, the first marriage was officially formalized at the registry office, while the second and subsequent were secretly fastened with a religious ceremony - nikaha. Remained and kalym. At the same time, practically no criminal cases were brought for these crimes, due to the lack of evidence. At the same time, according to law enforcement agencies, there were many cases when poor families gave 14-15 year-old girls as rich wives to wealthy fellow villagers. Before World War II, this fact was kept secret. However, as soon as the inhabitants of the European part of the country began to massively evacuate the inhabitants of the European part of the country, the facts of polygamy became public. However, neither the parents nor the second wives themselves were in a hurry to go to court, and therefore no criminal cases were initiated in this regard.
The only significant drawback for the second wives was the fact that, from a legal point of view, they were absolutely powerless. With children, they were considered single mothers, and after the death of her husband did not have any inheritance rights. At the same time, the wife of the deceased relative was often taken as the second wife to help his family financially. In Central Asia, there are many examples of such marriages committed in the post-war period. Moreover, while in villages the presence of a second wife was kindly treated by a person, in cities this tradition, as a rule, did not find understanding. The Bolsheviks were right. The influence of secular living standards over time has made its own adjustments. In the cities of Central Asia, many enterprises with engineering staff from other republics of the USSR were built, which brought European rules and traditions to the life of local residents. Nevertheless, after the collapse of the USSR with the transformation of the Central Asian republics into independent states, the traditions of polygamy again flourished. Having a second wife has become not only possible, but also prestigious.
What is the circumcision for?
The main reason for this ritual is purity. It is very important that every Muslim bathes before prayer. It is important that urine does not remain on the body. Muslims believe that removing the foreskin facilitates hygienic care of the penis.
Muslim proponents of the genital mutilation also claim that residual urine can collect under the foreskin, which can lead to fatal diseases.
Some Muslims see circumcision as a preventative measure against infection and disease.
For most representatives of this faith, circumcision is seen as an introduction to the Islamic faith and a sign of belonging.
Procedure Behavior Conditions
There is no established age for circumcision in Islam. The age at which it is performed varies by family, region, and country.
The age of seven is considered preferable, although some are cut off already on the seventh day after birth or during puberty.
In Islam, there is no equivalent to the Jewish mohel (the person in Judaism who circumcises). Circumcision is usually done in a clinic or hospital. The person conducting the operation does not have to be a Muslim, but he must be prepared from a medical point of view.
In some Islamic countries, circumcision is performed after Muslim boys have read the entire Qur'an from beginning to end.
In Malaysia, for example, surgery is a ritual of puberty that separates the boy from childhood and introduces him into adulthood.
The main contraindication is the presence of any pathologies, inflammatory processes and neoplasms.
Why do Muslims circumcise
Circumcision is not mandatory in Islam, but it is an important ritual aimed at maintaining purity.
The ritual of the rite of circumcision for men among Muslims dates back to the time of the Prophet Muhammad. According to tradition, Muhammad was born without foreskin. Some Muslims who practice circumcision consider this a way to be like him.
According to Dr. Bashir Qureshi, author of Transcultural Medicine, every Muslim should follow the path and life of the Prophet Muhammad. Therefore, all Muslims - pious, liberals or secular people - observe this ritual.Muslims are required to follow not only the message of Allah in the Holy Quran, but also what the Prophet said or did as proof of their devotion to Islam.
Traditionally, Muslims are encouraged to undergo circumcision for men converted to Islam, but this practice is not widespread, especially if the procedure poses a health risk.
Khitan, or Khatna, is the name for the Muslim circumcision. As the sources indicate, this is an ancient practice used in religions that preceded Islam, in the first Christian communities and in Judaism.
Although there is no mention of this in the Qur'an, in the Hadith and Sunnah it is referred to as the introduction of a person into the Islamic community, or ummah.
Islamic fitra (actions that emphasize the nature of man) includes five actions:
- pubic hair shaving,
- mustache cropping,
- nail clipping
- plucking hair from armpits.
However, according to another Hadith, fitra includes ten actions without circumcision.
In some Islamic schools, circumcision is recommended, but not considered mandatory. Others consider circumcision a must for all Muslims.
Benefits of Shariah Circumcision
Circumcision is one of the actions prescribed by Allah, designed to make people beautiful both externally and internally (physically and spiritually). This is the perfection of fitra (the natural state of man) with which He created them, and, therefore, it is the perfection of the hanefiyya (pure monotheism) of the religion of Ibrahim (Abraham). The origin of the institution of circumcision as the perfection of the hanefiyah with the fact that Allah made a covenant with Ibrahim, promising to make him the imam of mankind. And the sign of this covenant was that every newborn man will be circumcised, and therefore the covenant will have this sign on their bodies. Circumcision is a sign that he has adopted the religion of Ibrahim.
For Hanifs (believers in a single god in pre-Islamic Arabia) circumcision had the same status as baptism for Christians.
Dr. Muhammad Ali al-Baar (a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in the UK and a consultant to the Islamic Medicine department of the King Fahd Medical Research Center at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah) in his book on this topic wrote about the benefits of circumcision in Muslims, why this operation is necessary.
In his opinion, circumcision of newborn boys (i.e., during the first month of life):
- provides protection against local infection in the penis, which may occur due to the presence of the foreskin, which can lead to retention of urine or infections of the head of the penis,
- prevents infections of the urethra (the author refers to numerous studies, according to which, uncircumcised boys are more susceptible to infection of the urethra)
- protects against penile cancer,
- protects wives from cervical cancer (based on research, the author indicates that wives of circumcised men are less likely to become infected with cervical cancer than wives of uncircumcised men).
How is the Muslim rite circumcised
Adult circumcision is usually performed at a medical facility under local anesthesia. Most men have practically no pain, and after the procedure, painkillers are not required.
From the point of view of medicine, circumcision in Muslim boys at an early age is more desirable, which is explained by the low conductivity of impulses along the tissues of the foreskin in young children. In fact, for them this procedure is painless, which eliminates the need for anesthesia, which can harm the health of a small child.
The operation to excise the foreskin is performed on an outpatient basis, it lasts about half an hour. If necessary, use local or intravenous anesthesia.
The operation is carried out in several stages: first, the site of the operation is anesthetized, then the circumcision line is noted, after which the foreskin is excised and sutures are made.
There are two ways to carry out an operation.
- The foreskin is pulled forward as much as possible, then fixed with a special device similar to a guillotine. After that, the skin is cut off with a very sharp blade.
- Around the foreskin set an annular clamp, along the edge of which cut off the "excess" skin. The clamp is left for a while to prevent bleeding.
Some adult Muslims refuse to use painkillers during surgery, regarding this as evidence of willpower.
After the rite is perfect, many families often celebrate.
In Islam, circumcision is carried out not only for men, but also for women. In this case, it is considered desirable, but not required.
In the Sunnah there are texts testifying that Muslims' rite of circumcision of women is a kind of prescription. According to Muslims, female circumcision is prescribed not so much for any specific reason, but as an act of wisdom that brings certain advantages.
The consequences of female circumcision
According to many Muslim experts, uncircumcised women accumulate genital secretions, cause an unpleasant odor, and can lead to infections of the vagina or urethra.
Female circumcision reduces clitoris over-sensitivity, an increase in which is thought to irritate the husband, especially during intercourse.
Another advantage of circumcision is that it prevents clitoris stimulation, an increase in which can cause pain. Circumcision reduces excessive sexual desire.
Female gynecologist Sitt al-Banaat Haid in an article entitled “Female circumcision from a health point of view” indicates that female circumcision is primarily obedience to Islam, which means acting in accordance with fitra and following the Sunna, which encourages him. She then mentioned some of the benefits of circumcision for women's health. The author points to a decrease in excessive libido in women, the prevention of unpleasant odors that arise due to dirty secretions, a decrease in the incidence of urinary tract infections, and a decrease in the frequency of infections of the reproductive system.
In the practice of many cultures, female circumcision is a partial or complete removal of the female external genital organs, which is performed without medical indications. Different peoples and communities carry out this procedure at different ages: from infancy to adolescence.
The disadvantages of female circumcision include the likelihood of heavy bleeding, the possibility of sepsis and infection. In modern Muslim society, many theologians insist on rejection of female circumcision, calling this procedure a sin. Despite this, many of the peoples professing Islam carry out this operation secretly.
Thus, if male circumcision has obvious advantages, then female circumcision causes an ambiguous assessment.
Why are they doing this?
According to statistics, correctly performed circumcision operation contributes to:
– decreaserisk of developing inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract,
– decreasethe likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV,
– reducethe likelihood of penile cancer,
– decreasethe likelihood of cervical cancer in the patient’s wife.
In children, the main indication for circumcision is phimosis, that is, narrowing of the foreskin, which leads to the inability to completely expose the glans penis. This condition of the foreskin prevents the normal cleansing of the head and contributes to the accumulation between it and the foreskin of a special substance - smegma. This leads to inflammation (balanoposthitis), which is fraught with a scar process that affects not only the foreskin, but also the urethra.
In adults, surgery is again indicated for phimosis, however, in this case, it is carried out immediately.
The foreskin is also dangerous for women - it has been proven that stagnant smegma when it enters the cervix during intercourse promotes the development of a tumor process on it. Cervical cancer is much less common in Muslim women and Jews due to the fact that transmission of human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 (causative factors of cervical cancer) from circumcised men is much less likely.
Currently, the World Health Organization recommends circumcision for men living in countries with a high spread of HIV infection. The WHO policy is based on research from Central Africa that circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV infection.
Definition of Wajib
Wajib is a mandatory rule in Sharia - a code of Muslim laws of a religious nature - a rule for which there is strong evidence. Wajib is an honorable act and is encouraged among Muslims, and denying it is considered a serious sin.
What is a Sunnat circumcision?
In Islamic terminology The Sunnat is a desirable act, an intention not subject to unquestioning fulfillment. This word gave the name to the whole movement among Muslims - the Sunnis.
Many of the Islamic scholars who belonged to him believe that circumcision is a personal affair of every Muslim and the refusal of this procedure will in no way cause the wrath of Allah.
Is it necessary to circumcise a Muslim? According to other adherents of Islam - the Coranites, not necessarily. They negatively relate to circumcision because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an.
Quranites say that this holy book regards a person as a perfect creation of Allah, not requiring artificial modifications.
Why do circumcisions to Muslims?
For Muslims, circumcision is a kind of creed, symbolizing the connection between them and Allah. The man who circumcised fulfilled the will of the supreme deity and the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad, thereby cleansing himself of the filth of the earth.
What does circumcision mean for Muslims? Cutting off material in the form of skin around the penis, a Muslim eradicates evil in his heart - envy, anger, hypocrisy, love of power and profit, pride, rivalry and cultivates the love of great Allah in the soul.
As you can see, the answer to the question: “Why are Muslims circumcised?” Is simple: “To eradicate everything bad and protect themselves from evil.”
The pros of the rite
For Muslims, circumcision in Islam has a number of undeniable advantages:
- They believe that male circumcision of Muslims makes them unlike all other peoples of the world, excluding Jews.
Fans of Allah believe that they sacredly fulfill the commandment from above, subjecting their body to excision of the foreskin as a ritual sacrifice to higher forces.
From a social point of view, a man who has circumcised takes the path of the prophet Muhammad and is a full-fledged citizen of the country in terms of religious views. Circumcised Muslims are much less likely to suffer from sexually transmitted and infectious diseases of the reproductive system.
Chitan also serves as a good prevention of phimosis and paraphimosis. Oncological diseases of the penis in those who have passed through this rite are practically not diagnosed. Among the ancient adherents of Islam, circumcision was also performed for hygienic reasons. In an arid climate, swimming was often quite difficult, which led to the accumulation of smegma between the head and the foreskin itself.
In the future, this was fraught with rapid growth of bacteria and acute inflammation. Chitan avoided these problems.
How old are Muslims circumcised?
Many are interested in the question: “When to circumcise with Muslims?”, We answer: “There is no clear indication of the age at which circumcision is performed in the Muslim tradition.”
However Islamic theologians advise true parents to conduct the ceremony as soon as possible after birthif the baby’s health allows.
It is best, in accordance with the legends about the life of the Prophet Muhammad, to remove the foreskin on the seventh day after the birth of the boy.
Some modern imams advise to abandon the circumcision procedure from the age of 3 to 7 years, explaining this as a possible psychological trauma.
Justification of polygamy among Muslims
If you delve into the study of the issue of polygamy, you will find that it is not at all mandatory. This right is given to every man. And he can already decide whether to use it or not. But at the same time it is permissible and in some cases even desirable. So, let's see why polygamy is allowed in Islam.
Historically, polygamy is primarily practiced in those places where the male population is less than the female. This is necessary so that every woman can be protected and not remain an old maid. Thus, society is protected from vices and corruption. At the same time, the woman agrees to the role of the second or third wife only because she could not become the first.
Thus, polygamy in Islam is intended primarily to ensure the well-being and equal rights of all women.
Terms & Conditions
However, polygamy is not permitted in all cases, and not every man. There are certain rules of polygamy in Islam that must be observed. First of all, what is meant by this rule? We list briefly the main provisions established by the Quran.
A husband must provide for all wives equally. This applies to food, wardrobe, housing, furniture and more. That is, everyone should receive everything that she needs.
The man undertakes to offer separate housing for all his chosen ones. The only exception is the case when they agree to live under one roof, but in different rooms of the house. At the same time, a man cannot settle one wife in a chic palace, and the other in a cramped shack. This is unfair and infringes on rights.
A husband should spend an equal amount of time with his wives. Thus, the distribution of not only material wealth, but also attention should be fair. The exception is the case when one of the wives gives the spouse permission to spend less time with her than with the others. Moreover, Sharia does not oblige a husband to love his women equally. After all, a person, even if desired, cannot distribute this feeling equally.
The husband should equally care for children born of different wives. Here the principle of uniformity should be observed even more carefully and scrupulously.
Thus, the conditions of polygamy in Islam are such that a man must be completely fair to his chosen ones. If he is unable to provide this, then he should not marry more than once.
Shariah laws regarding polygamy
In Islam, there are certain provisions regarding polygamy. According to them, in different cases it may be desirable, permissible or forbidden for any man. We will consider these situations in more detail to find out when exactly in Islam polygamy is allowed, and when not.
In cases where a man wants to marry a second time because of his wife’s illness or infertility, polygamy is desirable for him. Of course, provided that he will be fair to his chosen ones.
If a Muslim wants to take a second spouse without any special need, for example, to strengthen his position in society, then polygamy is not very desirable for him, but acceptable.
In cases where a man is not financially secure or is physically weak, or knows that he will not be able to comply with the above requirements, polygamy is prohibited for him.
The above provisions confirm that polygamy primarily serves for the equal rights and well-being of women.
Islam, polygamy: rules if the first wife is against
There is an opinion that a man can remarry only with the permission of the first spouse. How true is it? So, let's go deeper into Islam.
If the first wife is against, the Qur'an does not limit the man. However, it is advisable for the spouse to inform her and discuss this issue so as not to jeopardize family happiness and harmony.
Also, for a woman there is an opportunity to remain the only and beloved wife, if this requirement is discussed and fixed during the preparation
According to Muslims, polygamy helps to solve many family problems. In particular, significantly reduces the likelihood and divorce. It is believed that men are naturally prone to polygamy. Therefore, legal polygamy is much more preferable than treason.
Polygamy in Islam also serves to increase offspring as one of the most important principles of the prosperity of the people. This factor also originates from the past, when men died in wars. For the population to increase, many women were needed who were able to give birth to children.
Benefit to society
There are also social reasons why polygamy is allowed in Islam. As mentioned above, in areas where there are fewer men, the percentage of unmarried people rises. And legal polygamy allows every woman to be under the protection and guardianship of her spouse and experience the joys of motherhood.
A significant reason explaining polygamy is to protect the nation from sexually transmitted diseases, abortion and street children. The number of divorces is reduced, and the first wife may not be afraid to be abandoned, even if the relationship has cooled. She will continue to be held in high esteem and respect.
Polygamy around the world
In most countries, polygamy is permitted and is the norm. But not everywhere. For example, in Turkey it has been prohibited by law since the beginning of the last century. Also, it is not allowed in Algeria and Tunisia. A prerequisite for imprisonment in Iran is the consent of the first spouse. And in Syria, Morocco, Pakistan or Iraq, first you need to get permission from the authorities.
In Russia, as in most countries of the world, polygamy is prohibited and prosecuted. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there were many statements about the need to resolve it. However, in practice, this was done only in Ingushetia, and even then not for long.
And, for example, in France, where polygamy is also prohibited, an exception is made for immigrants from Muslim countries in this matter.
A relic of the past or a blessing?
Many women find it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to come to terms with the fact that they will not be the only ones for their husbands. It is especially difficult to understand polygamy for people professing a different faith. Therefore, there is such a heated debate around this topic. Someone considers polygamy a relic of the past and the path to debauchery. Others are good.
On the other hand, there are also cases when a man abuses his right to marry again. He remarries only for pleasure, and as soon as a young companion gets tired of him, divorces her. Therefore, of course, it is worth weighing everything before agreeing to the role of the second or third spouse.
In any case, polygamy is not a mandatory practice. Today, the vast majority of men enter into only one marriage. After all, re-marriage is not only troublesome and costly, but also offends the first spouse, even if she agrees to it.
This is only the right that a man can use at will. And it is good if he complies with all the necessary requirements. Then peace reigns in the family, and polygamy performs the functions historically assigned to it: to protect women and preserve moral principles.
Circumcision in various streams
All great Islamic theologians considered circumcision a part of religious practice for both men and women. Disagreements arose over various aspects of the rite of circumcision, such as the degree of commitment, age of performance, manner of performing the ceremony, etc.
The degree of commitment in different Islamic movements and law schools varies. In the Sunnis, circumcision is considered desirable (Sunnat) or obligatory (Wajib) action. Shiites believe that truncation of the foreskin is necessary: the uncircumcised cannot make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims themselves circumcise themselves, guided by the example of the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham). Quranites even reject the desirability of circumcision, claiming that circumcision itself is contrary to some verses of the Qur'an.
Among Sunni jurists there are different opinions about the mandatory circumcision. Imams Abu Hanifa (founder of the Hanafi madhhab) and Malik ibn Anas claim that circumcision is a sunnah-mukkada, that is, not an obligatory but recommended action. Hanafites and Malikites usually do not circumcise adult men who have converted to Islam. But the imams of al-Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal considered circumcision as a mandatory action for all Muslims.
Most Shiite theologians consider the practice of circumcision compulsory. Shiites believe that an uncircumcised Muslim cannot make a pilgrimage to Mecca. The authoritative Shiite books preserved the statements of the righteous caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib that “if a person becomes a Muslim, he must circumcise, even if he is 80 years old." According to Jafar al-Sadik, "the land hates the uncircumcised urine."
Among Islamic movements, there is a trend that rejects male circumcision due to the fact that it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. Proponents of this point of view point to the verses of the Qur'an that point to the perfection of creation and hygiene considerations. Some Quranites claim that circumcision is forbidden (haram), arguing that, for example, the 119th verse of the An-Nis surah forbids changing his body, and the 4th ayat of the Surat At-Tin says that man was created perfect.
While for Jewish circumcision (English) Russian. the terms and procedure for performing the ritual are regulated, in Islam there is no strictly defined procedure or form of circumcision. The circumcision procedure may vary depending on the time and place of its commission. All Islamic scholars have acknowledged that the correct male circumcision process involves "cutting off a piece of skin covering the glans penis so that the latter is completely exposed."
Recently, more and more operations on circumcision of the foreskin are done by doctors using local anesthesia. Unlike Jewish circumcision, a representative of a different faith may participate in the circumcision of a Muslim.
Islamic sources do not indicate a specific time for circumcision. Circumcision time depends on traditions in the family, region, and country. Most Islamic scholars are of the opinion that parents should circumcise a child before they reach the age of seven, ten years or the beginning of puberty. According to some theologians, the best age for circumcision is the seventh day after the birth of the child, since the prophet Muhammad himself circumcised his grandchildren - Hassan and Hussein - on the seventh day after their birth.
In some Islamic countries, circumcision is performed after a boy learns to read the entire Qur'an from beginning to end. In Malaysia and other countries, surgery is usually performed when the boy reaches the age of ten to twelve years.
Circumcision in Russia and the USSR
In the atheistic post-war USSR, the attitude of the authorities towards circumcision was twofold. In the post-war period in Bashkiria, special "Sunnatchi Babai" walked around the villages, who did circumcision. The Council for Religious Cults in 1955 categorically refused to prohibit circumcision and punish it. Moreover, as with the “roaming mullahs,” the Council recommended that taxes be imposed on the “Sunnatchi Babai”. At the same time, the Council categorically opposed the transfer of circumcision to representatives of registered clergy. In a secret letter dated January 14, 1955, the Council indicated to its Commissioner for the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic:
|The Council does not agree with your proposal to prohibit circumcision. With this, as well as other religious rites, the struggle by administrative means should not be waged. You should study the activities of the so-called. “Sunnatchi Babaev” and on all available facts periodically inform the governing bodies of the republic. If you have information about the persons who receive income from this rite, inform the Ministry of Finance of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to tax them with income tax under Article 19 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.|
Moreover, the Council in the same letter strongly opposed the legalization of circumcision, giving the right to commit it to representatives of the registered clergy:
|If Mufti Khiyaletdinov appeals to you on the issue of granting the right to circumcision to the registered clergy, you should delicately dissuade him from this, recommending that you maintain the current situation in this matter, because otherwise the Spiritual Administration will have to deal with health authorities, which require the worshipers involved in this operation, the necessary medical knowledge and skills. In addition, the indicated activities of the registered clergy will require establishing responsibility for the successful outcome of each operation.|
Circumcision in Europe
In June 2012, a Cologne court equated circumcision with a felony. The local prosecutor's office filed a lawsuit after a four-year-old Muslim boy had complications after the operation. As a result, German doctors began to refuse to carry out such operations, fearing lawsuits. According to Berlin laws, in order for the child’s parents or guardians to be able to undergo surgery, they must provide written consent, present a certificate from the community to prove their religiosity, as well as familiarize themselves with the possible risks to the boy’s health.