Title: Hepatitis F– the enemy has a new face!
Yellowness of the eyes and skin with hepatitis A
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Hepatitis A (also called Botkin's disease) - An acute infectious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The virus is well transmitted along the nutritional path, through contaminated food and water, about ten million people become infected with the virus every year. The incubation period is from two to six weeks, an average of 28 days.
In developing countries and in areas with inadequate hygiene, the incidence rate of hepatitis A is high and the disease itself is transmitted in early form in an erased form. Ocean water samples are examined for the presence of hepatitis A virus when studying water quality.
Hepatitis A does not have a chronic stage of development and does not cause permanent liver damage. After infection, the immune system forms antibodies against hepatitis A virus, which provide further immunity. The disease can be prevented by vaccination. Hepatitis A vaccine is effective in controlling disease outbreaks worldwide.
The early symptoms of hepatitis A infection (a feeling of weakness and malaise, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, muscle pain) may be mistaken for the symptoms of another disease with intoxication and fever, but in a number of individuals, especially children, the symptoms do not appear at all.
Hepatitis A virus has a direct cytopathic effect, that is, it can directly damage hepatocytes. Hepatitis A is characterized by inflammatory and necrotic changes in the liver tissue and intoxication syndrome, enlarged liver and spleen, clinical and laboratory signs of impaired liver function, in some cases jaundice with dark urine and discoloration of feces.
After entering the body, hepatitis A virus enters the circulatory system through the epithelial cells of the oral part of the pharynx or intestines. Blood carries the virus to the liver, where viral particles multiply in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (macrophages of the liver). Virions are secreted into bile and excreted with stool. Viral particles are excreted in significant amounts on average about 11 days before the onset of symptoms or IgM against hepatitis A virus in the blood. The incubation period lasts from 15 to 50 days, the mortality rate is less than 0.5%.
In hepatocyte, genomic RNA leaves the protein coat and is translated on the ribosomes of the cell. To initiate translation of the virus RNA requires the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G).
Completely unnoticed by the average person, hepatitis has become a real social threat.
The situation is complicated by the incomplete identification of all patients. Often this viral infection proceeds in a latent form, without any external manifestations. People do not go to the doctor and, accordingly, a blood test does not give up. The virus eludes treatment and is safely transmitted to another person.
The manifestation of the disease may well be like a rotavirus infection or a commonplace ARVI. In this case, untreated hepatitis imperceptibly passes into a chronic form and gradually destroys liver cells. Such a latent, insidious course is excluded only when infected with group A viruses, which are characterized by a short incubation period of up to two weeks and a pronounced clinical picture of the disease.
Table of contents
- Chapter 1. Hepatitis B and C. How to recognize the enemy "in person"
- Chapter 2. The basics of herbal medicine in the treatment of hepatitis
The given introductory fragment of the book Hepatitis B and C (Alevtina Korzunova, 2013) provided by our book partner - LitRes company.
Chapter 1. Hepatitis B and C. How to recognize the enemy "in person"
Before you start the story about hepatitis, you should dwell on the features of the organ that these diseases affect. Whenever I write or read something new about liver diseases, the myth of Prometheus comes to my mind. As you remember, this myth tells of a hero who, against the will of the gods, gave people fire. Revenge for this act was terrible. At the behest of the supreme god Zeus, Prometheus was chained to a rock, and every day an eagle flew to him and pecked his liver. Over night, the liver grew to its previous size, and the next day the hero’s torment was repeated. I do not cease to be surprised at the perspicacity of the authors of the myth, who amazingly correctly reflected in this story not only the heroic qualities of human nature, but also the fantastic properties of the liver. Currently, scientists have found that her ability to recover can be considered mythical. Indeed, this organ can fully recover, even if a piece of it remains in only 30% of the original volume. But these amazing properties of the liver are by no means exhausted. Not without reason cannibals considered the liver as the most valuable trophy. According to legend, by eating the enemy’s liver, you gain its strength. And indeed, the liver is the central energy organ in our body, so to speak, a place of power. Unfortunately, at present, eating the enemy’s liver can lead to poisoning, since a person clutters his body so much that they can literally kill rats. But the main dirt settles in the liver. We do not die only because under stress the liver is able to perform work ten times higher than its “daily duties”. It was not by chance that I called the liver the place of strength of our body. This is really the focus of our lives, the stomach and the womb. Indeed, it is not for nothing that a young child has significantly more liver in relation to the total body weight than an adult. As the liver grows and grows, it decreases, it seems to give itself to a growing body. And subsequently, the liver occupies a key place in all types of metabolism, all the nutrients of the body - proteins, fats and carbohydrates - are synthesized in it and utilized in it. Keep this in mind and value and take care of the organ. Do not think that since the liver is strong, it can withstand any test. The liver is a unique working pantry. Its nutrient reserves will last for several hours of the most intense work of the whole organism (such as, for example, solving differential equations in an earthquake). But the reserves of vitamin B12 in the liver are enough just for a huge period, for as much as 3-5 years, which is why vegetarians at first feel great. All problems begin at the moment when the liver gives a signal that the limit of this vitamin has been exhausted (and it comes only with meat). The strength reserves of this body are enough to withstand daily alcohol excesses for a decade and a half (it's no secret that brains in this case fail much earlier). A huge number of microorganisms and all kinds of toxins that enter the digestive tract are permanently deposited in the liver and not only accumulate, but are recycled and converted into harmless products as far as possible. And at the same time, the liver is very vulnerable, especially if you get to it from the right side (as hepatitis viruses do). In this case, she can cause considerable suffering. After all, when the liver is sick, all other organs have a bad time. In general, I began the story about the liver a little wrong. My very first words should be the words "most-most organ." After all, the liver is the largest gland of our body (its weight ranges from 1.5 to 2 kg). Although it is impossible to say that the liver is only a gland. After all, in addition to the production of bile, it performs a huge number of all sorts of other functions, which, perhaps, are even more important. This is the hottest organ in our body, which largely determines the constant temperature of the body. Therefore, with liver diseases, violations of thermoregulation can be observed. Of course, the muscles and the brain also generate a large amount of heat, but the muscles work inconsistently, and the brain, like any computer, has a good cooling system, and its heat does not heat anyone. The liver contains the largest amount of glycogen (up to 5% of live weight), and glycogen is the main fuel of our body. When you really want to eat, but you have to work and the food is not at all close, you only survive because your liver generously shares with the brain (and this fickleness works only on this, the most non-waste fuel) its reserves. However, other organs do not remain without her guardianship - this is the most irreplaceable organ. If the function of all other organs can be performed by machines, with the possible exception of the brain, then the liver has such diverse functions that it is simply not possible to reproduce them all. And although doctors are able to support the life of a person with a dead brain, kidneys, heart, help a person whose liver has failed, they are not able to. The liver cells contain the most active enzymes. This is not surprising, since it is in the liver cells that the largest number of chemical reactions take place. More than a thousand diverse transformations are described. It is impossible to artificially reproduce them all at the same time. This will require a huge modern biochemical laboratory. And the liver modestly fits in your side, in the right hypochondrium. The body knows who it is especially dear to him, therefore, reliably covered this body from all sides with ribs. Although only two diseases are indicated in the title of the book (hepatitis B and C), in fact we will consider the treatment of four diseases, since both hepatitis C and hepatitis B have two forms - acute and chronic, the signs and principles of treatment of which fundamentally different. Therefore, I will first talk about the general features of hepatitis, and then dwell on each of them specifically, so that you can make yourself clear about each of them. The term "hepatitis" in Greek means "inflammation of the liver." Accordingly, acute hepatitis is an acute inflammation that begins violently, with a rapid deterioration of a person’s condition, an increase in complaints. Acute inflammation, unlike chronic, is accompanied by an increase in temperature and, under favorable conditions, can be easily treated and safely ends in recovery. Chronic inflammation begins gradually, flows sluggishly, it is difficult to treat, and often it is (according to the Russian proverb, “Slower you go, you will continue”) leads to tragic results. In addition, often a person does not even suspect that he has a liver disease, and catches himself too late. Since the liver is a unique organ of our body, all its diseases, including inflammation, proceed in a very special way. As I have already said, the liver is an organ with a very high margin of safety, just like that, you can’t take it with your bare hands. Bacteria that cause a large number of inflammatory diseases of our body pass here - a healthy liver deals with them without any difficulties. All hepatitis is caused by viruses, and not every virus can lead to the development of this disease. For hepatitis, only the so-called hepatotropic viruses are responsible. Only some 15 years ago, medicine knew three of their varieties: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis neither A nor B (then they decided that it took too long to write and pronounce, and they renamed it hepatitis C). But science does not stand still, and recently the list of hepatitis has expanded significantly, in connection with which all doctors are experiencing a surge of enthusiasm, although you and I understand that there is nothing special to rejoice. Scientists are now not too puzzled over how to name newly discovered hepatitis, and assign them the Latin alphabet as the name. Now the list has settled on the letter F. The separation of hepatitis by infection mechanisms is of fundamental importance, since this affects the list of preventive measures . Hepatitis A and E are the so-called diseases of dirty hands. The virus that causes them enters the body through the mouth. These hepatitis, as a rule, are always acute and, with adequate treatment, all without exception end safely (the only thing that happens is that hepatitis E is very difficult in pregnant women, up to death). Hepatitis B and C is another matter, and, indeed, all the others. The viruses that cause them are very unstable, and cannot enter the body through the mouth - they do not pass through the acid barrier of the stomach and die. Therefore, they chose a different route of penetration - through blood or other biological fluids (saliva, semen, etc.). They are also called hemocontact, or parenteral. You can get viral hepatitis B or C not only from a sick person, but also from the so-called virus carriers, that is, those people in whose body the virus is constantly present, but does not manifest itself. In fact, such people are healthy carriers of infection, and there are a lot of them. Only in Russia there are about 5 million of them. But not everything is so scary, you should not look suspiciously at every person you meet again. Hepatitis B and C viruses are quite difficult to get into the body. Until recently, this happened mainly in medical institutions, during procedures that are associated with some kind of interventions and contact with blood. The largest number of infected people occurred in the group of people who received blood transfusions, especially until 1990, because until that time there were not enough good test systems that would allow you to reject infected blood, and from time to time, doctors themselves, without knowing it, used blood of a sick person. Therefore, if you received blood transfusions during this period, and if you received blood transfusions at all, it makes sense to do blood tests for markers of viral hepatitis. It is not so expensive and difficult, now this analysis can be done in any clinic, and you will sleep peacefully, knowing that no malicious virus in your body has lurked and does nothing wrong. In the mid-1990s a large number of people were gifted with hepatitis B and C viruses during treatment in dental offices. As you remember, this was the heyday of the “wild” private dentistry, when dental chairs were placed almost in the kitchens, and the sanitary condition of these so-called rooms left much to be desired. Currently, the situation has improved significantly, strict dental control systems have been introduced in large dental institutions, and modern, advanced anti-AIDS systems have been used to protect patients not only from HIV infection, but also from infection with all other viruses. But in small cabinets, the situation is slightly different, sometimes there are omissions in the processing of tools, so before treating your teeth, be sure to ask if the upcoming intervention is safe or not, and visit only trusted dentistry. By the way, as we later found out, my friend’s grandson (whom I described in the introduction) was infected precisely in the dental office. Unfortunately, it was too late to prove anything, and my friends did not receive any compensation.Currently, there is a very high percentage of infected people who received the virus during tattooing among youthful tattoos, with the so-called piercing (when piercing various parts of the body). Therefore, if you have teenage children, explain to them the full degree of danger of these procedures, do not wait for the moment when your child comes home, all covered with tattoos made in the nearest gateway. As a rule, such tattooists don’t change tools, and among their clients infected addicts can easily turn out to be. If the child wants to get a tattoo or piercing at all costs, let him spoil his skin in decent places where there is at least elementary control over the quality of processing tools. Another transmission route is by syringe. It is common among drug addicts who use the same syringe for everyone. If someone with hepatitis appears in the company, then after a while, as a rule, everyone is ill. Therefore, among drug addicts, the incidence of hepatitis is about 80%. hepatitis C is especially prevalent among this category of people, and it is so characteristic that in medical institutions all drug addicts are considered to have hepatitis C, even if there are no tests to confirm this. Addicts are just a funded block for the hepatitis B and C viruses, so they pose a real threat of infection for other citizens, especially female drug addicts, who often earn extra money by engaging in prostitution. The fact is that another significant way of infection with viral hepatitis B is through sexual intercourse. For viral hepatitis C, this route of infection is not so characteristic, but still 10% of patients with hepatitis C are infected that way. Therefore, unprotected sex with a large number of partners at one fine time can end rather sadly. And if in the case of HIV infection, sex with a sick person ends in infection in 1 out of 4–5 cases, then unprotected sex with a patient with hepatitis B will end in the disease in 100% of cases. Therefore, one of the names of hepatitis B sounds like a disease of the newlyweds. I think that you will agree with me that hepatitis is not the best wedding present, so before you build a serious relationship, you need to conduct a couple of tests, even if you feel great. Remember, often chronic hepatitis can occur without obvious signs, or you may accidentally become a carrier of the virus. It’s much easier to explain the situation before you infect your loved one than after. Also, analyzes are necessary for all future mothers, since due to the high prevalence of viral hepatitis B among the adult population, transmission of the virus from mother to child has become more common. As a rule, the baby becomes infected during childbirth, so a cesarean section in most cases can help to avoid the disease in the baby. It is extremely difficult to become infected with hepatitis in the home, and viral hepatitis C is almost impossible. After all, the concentration of the virus is high enough for infection only in the blood and semen, and we rarely contact these biological fluids in everyday life. Cases of hepatitis B infection are described when using someone else's toothbrushes, razor accessories. Quite often, men become infected, as it were better to say, in a near-habitual way: during fights, especially if there are large, bleeding wounds. But more often, of course, hepatitis B infection occurs in everyday life, since the hepatitis C virus in the external environment is less resistant. Since it is very important to know the ways of infection with hepatitis, I will allow myself once again to briefly summarize what has been said. You can “catch” the virus: during medical manipulations (blood and plasma transfusions, hemodialysis, dental treatment in suspicious dental clinics), when tattooing or piercing in institutions without a license and sanitary control, in the environment of drug addicts when using one syringe, with unprotected sex, especially if partners change with kaleidoscopic frequency or you use the services of “priestesses of love”, it is very rare in everyday life when using common hygiene items and often enough in a fight. Also, the transmission of the virus occurs in childbirth from mother to child, if the mother has acute hepatitis, then the baby can be infected in utero. As you can see, getting infected with hepatitis is quite difficult, but avoiding infection, with appropriate preventive measures, is very simple. It has become especially easy to protect against hepatitis B recently in connection with the advent of the vaccine. In the national vaccination calendar, hepatitis vaccination is the first, because it must be carried out in the first 24 hours of a child’s life. It is free for children. If you are out of infancy, you will have to pay for it from your pocket, but you still need to do this. At least I strongly advise you. Unfortunately, the hepatitis C vaccine has not been developed, and it is unlikely that they will come up with it in the near future. The fact is that the virus that causes this disease is so variable that it is impossible to train the body to recognize it in time. I have already said that special viruses infect the liver. So, to a much greater extent this applies to the hepatitis B and C. viruses. Unlike most other representatives of their kind, they do not have strongly pronounced “criminal” properties. After all, as, for example, an ordinary virus arrives. It penetrates into the cell of the body, rapidly multiplies in it to such quantities that it literally breaks the unfortunate inside, and young viruses attack the surrounding cells. Naturally, the body reacts violently and immediately to such "disgraces" - it removes uninvited guests - and the person recovers. Not so hepatitis B and C. viruses act. Any courtier can envy their cunning. Having penetrated the liver cell, viruses slowly and very carefully integrate into its life processes, not greatly disrupting them, but only taking part of the energy to build their own descendants. The offspring of the virus does not engage in vandalism either, and the cell in which it appeared does not destroy, but leaves it very carefully, and does not violate its integrity. The cell continues to work, producing not only bile, but also a virus, and it seems that nothing terrible is happening. But the virus multiplies, more and more cells become affected by it. This is reminiscent of a tumor process - the cells become completely abnormal, but only their number increases not by reproduction, but by infection. And when the number of diseased cells exceeds a certain threshold, the human immune system begins to work, since a certain part of the virus still enters the bloodstream and stimulates it. The work does not include the usual infectious, but antitumor, cellular immunity. It does not work very quickly and uneconomically - it simply destroys all cells in which the virus may be. If the immunity is good and the virus is recognized in time, while it is not enough, a person may not even know that he is sick. This can only show laboratory tests. Naturally, if many diseased cells have accumulated, liver function suffers greatly and a person becomes ill with a severe form of the disease, moreover, acute. Worst of all, if not all diseased cells are removed immediately. As a result, a chronic form of the disease forms: the inflammatory process slowly and slowly stretches, cells die, connective tissue remains in their place, and prerequisites for the development of cirrhosis of the liver are created. The most characteristic similar development of events for hepatitis C, the virus of which is very well hidden from the immune system. In the case of hepatitis B, this can occur in case of impaired immunity, usually the virus of this hepatitis stimulates the immune system well and therefore this disease proceeds mainly in acute form. Sometimes in the human body the virus goes into a "sleeping" state. It is embedded in the structure of DNA and completely ceases to multiply. But such a condition is by no means unsafe, since it can lead to the development of a tumor (see below). So that later in your head porridge does not form, I will talk about each of the hepatitis separately. I'll start, perhaps, with hepatitis B, its acute form.
Acute hepatitis B develops 2–4 months after infection. It can occur both with jaundice and without jaundice. Usually, the anicteric variant of the course of viral hepatitis is not perceived by patients as hepatitis, and they do not go to the doctor, especially since without jaundice, hepatitis B for the uninitiated looks like a banal cold. Judge for yourselves: before the yellowness of patients, a prolonged insignificant increase in temperature, which is accompanied by the appearance of aches in the body, is preoccupied (mainly large joints hurt, and the pain intensifies at night, while the joint itself looks absolutely healthy). Patients are lethargic, complain of weakness and rapid unmotivated fatigue, some patients note dizziness and drowsiness. Even before jaundice appears, patients can notice a darkening of the urine and minor discomfort in the right hypochondrium, as the liver enlarges. Some especially strong citizens before the appearance of jaundice generally do not notice any manifestations of the disease. But as soon as they turn yellow, their health is deteriorating sharply. Not to notice that you are sick is simply impossible, because the appetite is reduced so much that it completely disappears. Still, what a desire there is, if you constantly feel sick, there is constant bitterness and dryness in your mouth, and even your head hurts and is spinning. The only thing that can please the sick is that the pain in the joints stops. But drawing pains in the right hypochondrium can be observed, as the liver increases even more. With a mild course of hepatitis, this usually ends here, jaundice usually lasts 1.5–2 months, and then gradually disappears. But the disease does not always go smoothly. Sometimes complete intrahepatic stagnation of bile can be observed, while severe itching of the skin appears, jaundice can acquire a grayish-green tint, urine darkens very much, and stool, on the contrary, almost completely discolors. If a severe course of hepatitis is noted, then the fever does not disappear, the liver increases significantly, which is accompanied by severe soreness in the right hypochondrium. There is increased bleeding. But it is observed only in a hospital, because due to the severity of the condition, such patients need intensive treatment in intensive care wards. But, fortunately, a similar course of viral hepatitis B is not very common. Even more rarely, the fulminant, or fulminant, course of hepatitis is observed, in which a very rapid (sometimes within a day) massive death of the liver cells occurs, which is accompanied by an almost complete loss of liver function, and this, as you know, is almost fatal, because the headache suffers brain. Patients quickly lose consciousness and do not come back into it. But do not be afraid, Such cases are extremely rare, as a rule, when hepatitis B is attached to hepatitis B. But even with a favorable course of hepatitis B, it takes a very long time to heal, and a complete restoration of liver functions occurs much later than a clinical improvement. The fact that a person was discharged from the hospital home does not mean at all that he can consider himself a full member of society. For a long time, more pleasures in life are closed for him. You can neither eat plenty (diet), nor drink alcoholic beverages, even the weak (mode). Even sports - and he is inaccessible to recovering. To begin physical activity will be allowed no earlier than six months later. And God forbid you get sick at this time - medications are also not recommended, especially if these are antibiotics. Only a doctor can prescribe drugs. But the hospital is almost two months long. The criteria for complete recovery are only laboratory parameters, the disappearance of the virus from the blood and normal indicators that reflect liver function. Sometimes a full recovery does not occur. Dysfunctions can remain both in the liver itself and in the biliary tract. In severe viral hepatitis, massive death of liver cells in humans, cirrhosis subsequently forms. This is a terrible disease, since it’s difficult to do anything with it, it will steadily progress until the liver stops working completely. With the help of treatment, you can only slow down this process. But, since the severe course of viral hepatitis is not so common, liver cirrhosis as the outcome of viral hepatitis B is also a rarity. Much more often after the transferred viral hepatitis, patients are disturbed by motility of the biliary tract, the so-called dyskinesia. This leads to a violation of the secretion of bile and, as a result, digestive disorders, pain in the liver, which can be very pronounced. In addition, the prolonged existence of dyskinesia, as a rule, ends with the formation of gallstone disease. In a small percentage of cases, the body cannot completely get rid of the virus, and then a protracted and chronic course of hepatitis develops. As you know, this is an unfavorable outcome of the disease. That's how smoothly we got to the chronic form of hepatitis B. If acute hepatitis is treated in an infectious diseases clinic, then chronic hepatitis is the patrimony of therapists. Fortunately, unlike most therapeutic diseases, chronic hepatitis is still treatable and can be completely cured, so that even a trace remains. The main thing is not to lose precious time and start treatment as soon as possible. Although some patients with chronic hepatitis suffered acute hepatitis, for the main contingent of patients with this form of the disease, the news that they are sick is a real surprise. As you remember, very often acute hepatitis is asymptomatic, i.e., without any manifestations, and just as quietly turns into chronic. If acute hepatitis B is a fairly favorable disease, then the chronic course of this disease is much more dangerous. For her, the transition to cirrhosis is not an accident, but a natural development, that is, without treatment, the outcome of the disease can only be the death of the patient, without options. But the course of the disease itself can vary greatly. As already mentioned, the virus in the liver cells can actively multiply, and may be in a "sleeping" state. In the second case, patients are not worried about anything. They are practically healthy, only they have a “bomb” in the liver, which can explode at any moment - the virus can activate and begin to actively affect the liver, that is, the first variant of chronic hepatitis will develop. In this case, complaints about weakness, a slight increase in body temperature, irritability and poor sleep appear. Patients lose their appetite, lose weight, they are disturbed by indigestion, flatulence (bloating). Often there are pains in the right hypochondrium, especially after eating. But it should be said that this pain is not very pronounced, not as severe as with cholelithiasis, but more like a feeling of heaviness (the liver is enlarged, its capsule is stretched). Jaundice with chronic hepatitis, as a rule, does not happen. Eyes may occasionally turn yellow periodically, but not often, and this yellowness does not last long.Only occasionally, chronic viral hepatitis B can occur with severe inflammation of the small bile vessels, which become clogged and stop passing bile into the intestines. Bile enters the bloodstream - jaundice is formed, sometimes very strong, which is accompanied by skin itching. Itching is sometimes so pronounced that patients involuntarily itch even in their sleep. This is not a very favorable form of hepatitis. She needs a quick and very intensive treatment. Chronic viral hepatitis always occurs with a digestive disorder, which can be strong or not very strong, can be expressed in lesions of the stomach or intestines, bile ducts or pancreas. Leading complaints that concern patients are stool instability with a predominant tendency to diarrhea, poor appetite. Very often, patients complain of bloating. Excessive bloating of the intestines with gases leads to the appearance of pain in the abdomen. Disorders of the stomach are manifested by a constant feeling of discomfort in the epigastric region, nausea, belching. All these indicated manifestations of the disease poison the lives of patients and are often the reason for going to the doctor. In general, pure viral hepatitis does not bother a person much. Deterioration of health is observed, as a rule, with the addition of other diseases: biliary dyskinesia, pancreatitis, chronic gastritis or with the transition of the disease to the next phase - the phase of liver cirrhosis. The appearance of fluid in the abdomen, edema, spider veins, hair loss, nasal, uterine bleeding - these are already signs of forming cirrhosis of the liver, which suggests that a little more wait - and the treatment will be very late. Very often the hepatitis virus acts as an allergen and excessively irritates the immune system. In this case, concomitant autoimmune diseases may develop (that is, those diseases in which the body destroys itself). Some in some cases cause great suffering and are more dangerous than viral hepatitis, which served as their root cause. Chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), periarteritis nodosa (inflammatory damage to blood vessels), glomerulonephritis (damage to the kidneys), and damage to the thyroid gland are more common than others. All these diseases are characterized by a progressive course and a gradual loss of the functions of the organs that they affect. As a rule, after recovering from hepatitis, it is possible to cope with them. But still, the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B is not a death sentence. Recently, there has been a greater number of drugs that cope well with viruses. Most patients recover after treatment without any residual effects. The disadvantages of treating chronic hepatitis are its long duration and high cost. Unlike viral hepatitis B, which is mainly found in acute form and rarely gives rise to chronic forms of the disease, hepatitis C is recognized by WHO experts as the basis on which the formation of all chronic liver diseases occurs. In our country, the main contingent of patients with chronic hepatitis is hepatitis B patients only because this type of virus is more common. In countries where both of these hepatitis are equally common (tropical Africa, Southeast Asia), the majority of patients with chronic hepatitis are people who have the virus under their letter C in their bodies. For hepatitis C, transition to a chronic form can even be considered a regularity. . Sometimes it is initially chronic, bypassing the acute phase. In this regard, viral hepatitis B is more favorable, since an acute disease, as a rule, is easier to treat. But still there are acute forms of hepatitis C, which can occur both with jaundice and without it. Moreover, icteric forms are even more favorable, because after them the disease becomes chronic only in half the cases, but those people who have easily had hepatitis C in 100% of cases retain it for the rest of their lives. Symptoms of acute hepatitis C differ little from those of hepatitis B. The only thing is that they are usually not so pronounced, and in general the acute form of the disease is much easier, very few deaths have been described. If you can say so, hepatitis B is less insidious than hepatitis C. Hepatitis B at least gives a sick person signs that not everything is in order in his body. And chronic viral hepatitis C has practically no manifestations. In this regard, he was even nicknamed the “affectionate killer”. They called it for a reason, because it is really a real killer. It would seem that nothing hurts, but in fact, if you look at the liver tissue under a microscope, it turns out that the whole liver is literally "eaten up" by cirrhosis. Foreign scientists conducted research, and it turned out that more than half of the patients who do not show any complaints actually already have cirrhosis of the liver. This is a very unpleasant discovery - because if hepatitis can be cured without a trace in a year, then it takes years to take control of cirrhosis. Also, hepatitis C is characterized by great sophistication in choosing a method of killing. If with chronic viral hepatitis B, death occurs predominantly from complications of cirrhosis, then viral hepatitis C has a tendency to destroy its victims with cancer as well. A feature of hepatitis C virus is its ability to integrate into the genetic apparatus of liver cells. Thus, it violates the most subtle processes of cell activity, often completely distorting it. Very often in this case, mutant cells are formed, capable of unlimited reproduction. They give rise to the development of a hepatic tumor - the so-called hepatocellular carcinoma, which is practically untreatable. But do not despair. As a rule, cirrhosis of the liver is a complication that develops no earlier than 5 years after infection. “Wait” for hepatocellular carcinoma will have an even longer period - about 15-20 years. Of course, it’s not worth waiting for either complication. It is necessary immediately after the diagnosis to be taken for treatment, which will be the more intensive the more time has passed since the moment of infection. Also, more efforts must be made if signs of marked activity of inflammation in the liver are observed. This is manifested by the appearance of complaints that are characteristic of hepatitis B, such as weakness, decreased ability to work, fatigue, poor appetite, pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium, weight loss. Often there may be fever and enlarged liver. If you suspect you have chronic hepatitis and there was a possibility of infection, take the time to do an analysis. The presence of these insidious diseases must be known, since it is much easier to cure them until they manifest themselves in any way. The presence of symptoms suggests that complications have already begun to join. If you have suffered acute hepatitis, do not rush to close the book. It will be useful and interesting for you. With your discharge from the hospital, the treatment does not end for you, it is just beginning, you still have a lot of time and effort to restore your liver, and in this guide you will find a lot of interesting things for yourself.
The main forms and types of hepatitis
Answering the question of what kind of hepatitis occurs, experts note that in modern medicine there are several classifications of the disease.
Two main forms of hepatitis are known - acute and chronic.
The acute form is characterized by a bright and clearly defined clinical picture, in which there is a sharp deterioration in the patient's condition, severe intoxication of the body, yellowness of the sclera of the eyes and skin, and a violation of the basic functions of the liver. The acute form is most characteristic of the pathology of viral etymology.
The chronic (inactive) form is characterized by an erased clinical picture and in many cases is asymptomatic. It can develop both independently and become a complication of the acute form of the disease. In chronic forms, there is a significant increase in the size of the liver, noticeable even with palpation of a diseased organ, dull pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea. With untimely treatment, chronic forms of the disease lead to dangerous complications, in particular, cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Depending on the cause of hepatitis, there are:
Conventionally, all of these species can be combined into two groups - infectious and non-infectious species.
|viral A, B, C, D, E, G, F||toxic|
Symptoms of the disease
Since the beginning of the study of hepatitis F, a little time has passed, so there is no exact data on the phases of the development of the disease. The duration of the incubation period, according to various sources, is estimated to be in the range from 2 weeks to 1 month, while in some patients it was possible to determine carriage only by laboratory diagnostic methods, since clinical manifestations were completely absent. Scientists note that this type of hepatitis is characterized by a wave-like course with a temporary improvement and exacerbation of signs of infection:
- Infection with hepatitis F in the incubation period is accompanied by a number of symptoms that are difficult to consider as specific manifestations of liver damage. General weakness, loss of strength, decreased performance, malaise, low-grade fever, chills, sweating are typical in the initial period for most viral infections and colds, so it is difficult to establish the exact nature of the pathology without specific blood tests.
Headaches and fever
The period of pronounced clinical manifestations of hepatitis F is replaced by a temporary remission, when the symptoms of the disease recede and then return, which indicates the transition of the viral infection into a chronic form.
The main causes
Currently, it is known that the causative agent of hepatitis F is a DNA-containing HFV class virus. Introducing into the cellular structure of hepatocytes, the pathogen triggers the processes of replication, that is, active self-reproduction. The source of infection can be a sick person or a virus carrier that does not have clinical manifestations, but contains a pathogenic agent in the blood.
Doctors distinguish two main ways of transmitting the virus:
- Hematogenous. When transfusion of infected blood, the virus enters the body of a healthy person and in the presence of a weak reaction of the immune system causes a disease. Thus, the disease can be transmitted through medical instruments, manicure accessories and devices for cosmetic manipulations. Before blood transfusion, the donor and recipient must undergo tests for the carriage of dangerous pathogens, but since specific detection measures using serological markers have not been developed, it is likely that blood infected with hepatitis F virus is used for transfusion. The possibility of infection by the hematogenous route is also possible during pregnancy and during childbirth.
- Fecal-oral. Hepatitis F virus is stable in the environment and if there is insufficient purification of wastewater or drinking water from stagnant water bodies, infection is possible. In places of mass crowds of people forced to be in poor sanitary conditions after natural disasters, during military conflicts and other emergency situations, there is a problem with clean drinking water. A hepatitis F agent can cause an epidemic by triggering an outbreak of infection or causing a hidden virus carrier.
At risk for the disease are the military, rescuers, medical workers, laboratory workers, as well as people working in the field of livestock. Due to weakened immunity, there is a high probability of infection with group F hepatitis in drug addicts, HIV-infected, patients with autoimmune disorders and undergoing chemotherapy sessions with cancer.
The diagnosis of viral hepatitis F is made by eliminating possible infectious diseases, liver and blood diseases that occur with similar symptoms:
- According to the examination, the doctor notes an increase in the volume of the liver, pain when feeling the edges. The skin and sclera of the eyes are yellowness, the patient has scratches on the skin, and with a pronounced course, a characteristic smell from the mouth appears.
- A biochemical blood test for hepatitis shows a significant excess of the acceptable norms for the content of leukocytes and ESR, which indicates a pronounced inflammatory process in the body. The indicators of total and bound bilirubin increase above 20.5 μmol / l, the protein level decreases.
- A general urine test for hepatitis F also undergoes characteristic changes. The acidity, color, density of urine changes, a high protein content and the presence of red blood cells are determined.
- Ultrasound diagnosis shows an increase in organ volume, as well as changes in parenchymal tissue.
Carrying out a serological blood test by PCR and ELISA shows the presence of hepatitis virus, a variety of which is determined by exclusion, since specific antigens for determining the type of hepatitis F have not yet been developed.
Since viral particles are excreted with feces only at the end of the incubation period, only a specific diagnosis of the presence of anti-HAV IgM in the blood is possible. IgM appears in the blood only after the acute phase of infection and can be detected one or two weeks after infection. The appearance of IgG in the blood indicates the end of the acute phase and the emergence of immunity to infection. Anti-HAV IgG appears in the blood after administration of the hepatitis A virus vaccine.
During the acute phase of infection in the blood, the concentration of the liver enzyme, alanine transferase, significantly increases (Eng. ALT). The enzyme appears in the blood as a result of the destruction of hepatocytes by the virus.
This is the most common cause of liver inflammation.
The classification of viral hepatitis allows us to distinguish two main groups of the disease - with the enteral and parenteral infection mechanism. The first group can include hepatitis A and E, which can be infected “by mouth”, i.e. through infected food, dirty water, or unwashed hands. The second group includes hepatitis B, C, D, G, which are transmitted through the blood.
Hepatitis A, which is popularly known as Botkin's disease, is one of the mildest forms of the disease. In fact, it is a food-borne infection that affects the liver without affecting the digestive tract.The causative agent of the infection is the RNA virus, which enters the human body with contaminated food and water, as well as when using infected household items.
There are three main forms of the disease:
- icteric (acute),
- subclinical (asymptomatic).
The main diagnostic method is a blood test, in which antibodies of the IgM class are determined.
People who once had hepatitis A develop a lifelong immunity to this form of the disease.
Hepatitis B has a viral nature and is one of the most common and infectious diseases. It has two forms:
- acute, which in 10% of cases develops into chronic,
- chronic, which leads to numerous complications.
There are two main ways of transmitting the virus - artificial and natural. In the first case, the transmission of the virus is possible through infected blood that enters the body of a healthy person during various manipulations (blood transfusion, transplantation of donor organs), when visiting a dental office, a beauty salon, as well as when using non-sterilized syringes and needles. Among the natural modes of transmission, the most common is the genital tract. It is also possible the so-called vertical infection, which occurs during childbirth from a sick mother to her baby.
The treatment of the disease is complex and requires an integrated approach, which depends on the stage and form of the disease. However, to achieve full recovery is almost impossible.
Protecting yourself and preventing hepatitis B infection will help timely vaccination.
Hepatitis C in medical circles is known as HCV infection.
When asked which hepatitis is the most dangerous, infectious disease doctors say that it is hepatitis C.
Currently, 11 HCV genotypes are known, but they all share one feature - they are transmitted only through infected blood.
It has a similar clinical picture with hepatitis B. It manifests itself in both acute and chronic form. Moreover, according to statistics, the chronic form in 20% of cases ends with cirrhosis or liver cancer. A particularly high risk of such complications is typical for patients who come in contact with hepatitis A and B.
Unfortunately, there is no vaccine against hepatitis C.
The duration of treatment and its outcome depend on the genotype, form and stage of hepatitis, as well as on the age of the patient and his lifestyle. The most effective way to treat the disease is antiviral therapy with new generation drugs, among which the most effective is Interferon alfa. As modern studies show, a positive result is achieved in 40-60% of cases.
Hepatitis D, also known as delta hepatitis, occurs when a person is infected with the HDV virus. It is characterized by acute, overwhelming liver damage and is difficult to treat. Therefore, many experts classify it as the most dangerous hepatitis.
Unlike all types of hepatitis, the HDV virus does not have its own membrane and cannot develop in the human body on its own. The necessary condition for its reproduction in the human body is the presence of hepatitis B. That is why only people with hepatitis B can become infected with delta hepatitis.
There are two forms of delta hepatitis - acute and chronic. For the acute form of the disease, the presence of such symptoms is characteristic:
- pain in the right hypochondrium,
- dark urine
- nausea and vomiting,
In the chronic form of the disease, symptoms may be absent or not appear for a long time.
Hepatitis E is a viral lesion of the liver that occurs through the fecal-oral route. Like Botkin's disease, this liver damage is transmitted primarily with contaminated water and food. You can also get infected through the blood.
Symptoms of the disease are similar to signs of Botkin's disease. The disease begins with an upset digestive system and an increase in body temperature, after which yellowing of the skin and sclera of the eyes occurs.
In most cases, the prognosis for patients is quite favorable. However, in case of infection in the third trimester of pregnancy, the disease is very difficult and ends with the death of the fetus, and sometimes the death of the mother.
The main difference between hepatitis E and other types of the disease is that this virus affects not only the liver, but also the kidneys.
Hepatitis F is a poorly understood type of disease. Laboratory studies are still being conducted around the world aimed at studying the etymology of the virus and the main methods of its transmission. Since the clinical picture of the virus is not fully understood, it is very difficult to make an accurate diagnosis.
However, it is known for certain that this infection is transmitted through the blood and has the following phases:
- incubation period
- pre-icteric phase
- icteric phase
- period of residual phenomena.
Hepatitis G was discovered recently in a patient infected with hepatitis C. That is why the concept of such an infection often means one of the varieties of hepatitis C.
Currently, this type of hepatitis is poorly understood, but hepatitis G infection methods are known: it is established that it is transmitted through the blood during sexual contact, as well as from mother to child during childbirth.
They arise as a result of the negative effects on the human liver of chemicals, industrial poisons, as well as poisons of plant origin, alcohol and certain medications.
Depending on the source of infection, the following types of toxic liver inflammations are distinguished:
- Alcoholic - arises as a result of the toxic effect of alcohol on the liver, leads to metabolic disorders in hepatocytes and their replacement with adipose tissue.
- Medication - appears when taking hepatotoxic drugs (Ibuprofen, Phtivazide, Biseptol, Azathioprine, Methyldopa, etc.).
- Professional - occurs when industrial poisons (phenols, aldehydes, pesticides, arsenic, etc.) and other harmful substances are exposed to the human body.
Toxic hepatitis can be infected through the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in a tactile way.
A doctor must treat viral hepatitis, self-medication and the use of unconventional methods of therapy threaten serious complications and can cause irreversible changes in the liver, leading to disability and death.
In the complex of conservative therapeutic measures, the following are used:
- A special diet that reduces the load on the liver and reduces the negative effects of the hepatitis F agent. Fried, smoked, pickled dishes, confectionery, alcohol, strong tea and coffee, spicy and fatty sauces, eggs are prohibited. The basis of the diet is cooked products, dairy products, cereals and meat that have undergone gentle heat treatment.
- Drug therapy involves the use of interferons to reduce the active replication of the virus, antiviral drugs, digestive enzymes, enterosorbents, as well as the use of symptomatic drugs.
- Traditional medicine is used as an auxiliary treatment for hepatitis F to improve the outflow of bile and relieve symptoms of the disease.
The healing process takes a long time, and the results of conservative therapy are monitored by periodic serological tests for viruses.
There is no specific way to treat hepatitis A. About 6-10% of people diagnosed with hepatitis A can have one or more symptoms of the disease for up to forty weeks after the onset of the disease.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the following death statistics for hepatitis A virus in 1991: 4 deaths per 1000 cases across the entire population and up to 17.5 deaths among people over 50 years of age. As a rule, deaths occur when a person becomes infected with hepatitis A, already suffering from hepatitis B and C.
Children infected with hepatitis A virus usually have a mild illness for 1-3 weeks, and adults with a much more severe illness.
The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, usually with an insufficient level of sanitary conditions and overpopulation. Hepatitis A virus is extremely rarely transmitted parenterally with blood or blood products.
About 40% of all acute viral forms of hepatitis are caused by the hepatitis A virus.
The virus is resistant to detergents, in acidic (pH 1) conditions, in the presence of solvents (ether, chloroform), when dried, and to a temperature of up to 60 ° C. The virus persists for months in fresh and salt water.
This type of infection is under investigation. There is relatively little data about him. When observing patients who became ill after transfusion with hepatitis, it was found that they lack markers for known viruses. There was an assumption of another hepatitis virus.
Recent data indicate two hepatitis F viruses. It develops after transfusion of infected blood and is not similar in properties to known viruses. Studies have shown its resistance to fat solvents, histological changes that are not characteristic of hepatitis C. Infection of chimpanzees who have had hepatitis C causes a condition similar to hepatitis.
Another type of pathogen was isolated from feces with hepatitis after blood transfusion. Infection of rhesus monkeys has led to hepatitis. The morphological properties of the pathogen are similar to adenovirus.
The prevalence of infection is widespread, there is no accurate statistics on the incidence. Transmission of infection is possible in two ways:
- Fecal-oral. It is realized through dirty fruits, drinking water, violation of personal hygiene. In case of deterioration of sanitary conditions, insufficient purification of tap water or mixing wastewater with drinking, the spread of the disease is possible.
- Hematogenous infection occurs through transfusion of infected blood, the use of infected and insufficiently sterilized instruments, from mother to child during childbirth.
The risk group for morbidity is:
- medical staff
- emergency relief workers,
- drug addicts,
- infected with HIV.
The development of the disease resembles other types of hepatitis. The staging in the development of the disease is characteristic:
- pre-icteric phase
- residual effects.
After a short incubation period of 2-4 weeks, symptoms of the disease appear. Deterioration of general condition, decreased performance, weakness can be accompanied by chills, fever to subfebrile digits. Flu-like symptoms sometimes appear.
The phase turns into a detailed clinical - there is a headache, a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the liver, bitterness in the mouth, belching. Possible periodic vomiting. Dyspeptic symptoms are supplemented by a violation of the stool - possibly a relaxation or constipation, bloating.
The icteric phase gradually develops. Its first signs become noticeable by a change in the color of urine and feces. Urine becomes the color of beer, feces become discolored. This indicates a violation of the metabolism of bilirubin.
Yellowness becomes noticeable, starting with the sclera of the eyes and conjunctiva. Then the color of the skin of the face and body changes. Patients are itchy.
The liver grows and protrudes from under the edge of the ribs. On palpation, it is dense, smooth and painful.
With the onset of the icteric period, signs of intoxication decline, the condition becomes easier. Gradually, a cure occurs. Normalization of bilirubin metabolism becomes due to a change in the color of urine and darkening of feces.
After the disease, stochastic events are possible, such as dyspeptic symptoms, biliary dyskinesia, small changes in the biochemical analysis may persist.
Often there is a transition of hepatitis F to chronic. Then, with exacerbation, signs of liver damage again appear. Ultrasound preserves diffuse changes in the liver, possibly the formation of stones.
The probability of hepatitis is determined by the biochemical analysis of blood. Characteristic changes are observed. Bilirubin increases above 20.5 μmol / L due to direct and indirect fractions. Total protein decreases slightly less than the lower limit of normal. ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, LDH increase.
In a general blood test, an increase in white blood cells and ESR are signs of an inflammatory reaction.
In the general analysis of urine, a protein appears, the epithelium 10-15 in the field of view.
On ultrasound, the liver is enlarged, compacted. The edges remain smooth, the vascular pattern changes. The diagnosis of viral hepatitis by ultrasound is not made. This method is used to monitor and determine the severity of the disease.
Differentiation of the type of virus is based on serological analysis.
If there is a clinical picture of viral hepatitis, but no markers of viruses A, B, C are detected, the presence of hepatitis F can be assumed. This is especially true in patients who have previously suffered one of the listed diseases.
All patients with signs of hepatitis are subject to hospitalization in infectious hospitals. The basis of treatment is rest and diet.
For diseases of the hepatobiliary system use diet table number 5. It provides a ban on the use of fatty, fried foods, alcohol, salt restriction. You can’t pickle and canned dishes, mushrooms, legumes, nuts, spicy seasonings, carbonated drinks, fast food, very sour and sweet, rich pastries.
Soups are prepared on a vegetable broth, milk, weak broth. The meat of chicken, turkey, rabbit, veal is boiled, stewed, baked. Bakery products are dried in the oven. Instead of sweets, dried fruits are eaten.
Medication involves taking hepatoprotectors. The purpose of essential phospholipids, ursodeoxycholic acid, preparations of milk thistle, artichoke, Liv-52 is justified. They restore and protect the cell wall, normalize bilirubin metabolism, and improve cellular metabolism. Active substances reduce proliferative activity, and therefore reduce the risk of liver cirrhosis.
Cholagogue preparations dilute bile, improve the metabolism of its components, and regulate its excretion. This reduces viscosity, reduces the risk of cholecystitis, the formation of stones.
Amino acids are not prescribed as hepatoprotectors, as viral particles use them for replication, the severity of the disease will increase.
Specific prophylaxis of hepatitis F is not developed, because its antigenic structure has not been studied. To prevent outbreaks of infection, measures are taken to control the blood of donors. Reusable medical instruments must undergo thorough pre-sterilization treatment, sterilize it in compliance with temperature conditions.
For individual prevention, use a condom during sexual intercourse. You need to visit a nail salon with a personal set of tools. In cases where it is possible, use disposable medical devices (when visiting a gynecologist, take a disposable gynecological kit with you, use only disposable syringes). Tattoos and piercings should be done only in licensed salons with special equipment for sterilization and sets of disposable needles.
The success of the treatment of any infection depends on the timely detection and treatment of qualified help.
They are considered one of the rarest diseases. According to statistics, they are found in 50-100 cases per 1 million people, while they mostly affect women at a young age.
The reasons for the development of the disease are not known for certain, but it has been established that it occurs against a background of impaired immune system function, characterized by extensive damage to the liver and some other organs (for example, the pancreas).
This disease is characterized by a number of specific and non-specific symptoms. In particular:
- severe jaundice,
- dark urine
- pronounced weakness and malaise,
- pain in the right hypochondrium,
- itchy skin
It is impossible to diagnose hepatitis and its types solely by external signs. Answering questions about whether hepatitis is visible on ultrasound and whether there is an accurate analysis, experts note that a whole complex of studies is necessary to formulate a diagnosis. In particular, we are talking about biochemical blood tests, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, computed tomography and liver biopsy.
It is difficult to answer the question of which hepatitis is the worst for a person, since each of the known types of the disease can cause irreversible processes in the liver and lead to death. And although today many types of hepatitis are known, every year new subspecies are discovered, which can be even more dangerous for humans. Therefore, in order to prevent the virus from becoming one of the most dangerous diseases in the world, one should adhere to the rules of personal hygiene, avoid accidental sexual contact and conduct timely vaccination.
The virus present in donated blood does not cause changes in the structure of liver cells characteristic of most types of hepatitis. The disease is erased and detected by a biochemical blood test. It is mainly asymptomatic. In the acute form, headache and joint pain, general weakness are observed. Sometimes nausea or vomiting. The transition of the inflammatory process into a chronic form, leading to the onset of cirrhosis, is dangerous.
The virus contained in the discharge causes hepatitis with all the characteristic clinical manifestations.
The incubation period is replaced by symptoms similar to adenovirus:
- Headache is tormenting.
- Chills and fever.
- General weakness appears.
- Loss of appetite is characteristic, vomiting or diarrhea, bitter belching is possible.
- The color of urine changes, it darkens.
- The skin becomes yellowish.
- The size of the liver and spleen increases, which is accompanied by a feeling of discomfort and pain in the right hypochondrium.
A transition to a chronic form is possible.
Vigilance is justified
Preventive measures should be taken with maximum responsibility.
According to statistics from the World Health Organization, about two million people die every year due to viral liver damage. The number of chronic hepatitis carriers reaches truly large-scale sizes - about four and a half million around the world. At the same time, it is growing at an alarming rate.
About two hundred thousand people become infected each year.. It is difficult to assume what percentage of patients with latent forms is not taken into account by statistical data. The absence of obvious symptoms of the disease does not allow people to consult a doctor on time and begin adequate treatment.
But even complex therapy in acute cases in 5-10% of cases does not cope with viruses - the disease takes a chronic form. And infection in the prenatal period and in the first year of life is guaranteed to lead to chronic damage to the liver cells.
Read an article on molluscum contagiosum. How you can deal with this disease is described in detail in the record.
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Health is up to us
A visit to the doctor for any ailment should be the "rule of good taste."
Transfer ARVI on the legs, without isolation from the team - is tantamount to disrespect for the health of others. No one can know with certainty whether this is really a cold - a relatively safe infection that affects the respiratory tract. Behind the headache, chills and fever, the formidable hepatitis virus may well be hiding. Moreover, examination is required for digestive disorders and vomiting, accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium.
Specific preventive measures to protect against hepatitis F virus are not currently developed. Vaccinations that save from other varieties of viral liver disease are ineffective against this serological type. Important preventive measures are reduced to compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements and standards of behavior, as well as to strengthening the body's immune forces.
Doctors recommend the following measures to help reduce the risk of hepatitis F infection:
- Drinking good quality water. Avoidance of standing water for water supply. In field and extreme conditions it is imperative to boil water or use disinfection products developed for military use. Ensuring high-quality water purification used for domestic purposes is achieved through the installation of modern water treatment facilities. In order to prevent hepatitis outbreaks, including Form F, the quality control of treatment plants should be carried out in accordance with the established schedule by employees of the inspection bodies.
- Checking transfused blood. Before transfusion, an additional test for the purity of biological material is performed to exclude the content of hepatitis F agent.
- Strengthening the immune system. A strong protective reaction allows you to overcome the virus and prevent the development of the disease. To this end, it is useful to follow the principles of a healthy diet, play sports and more often visit the fresh air.
- Regular laboratory tests for people at risk. Despite the absence of specific serological reactions, it is possible to determine the hepatitis F virus by exclusion in the early stages of the disease.
- Sanitary standards. Disposable medical instruments, compliance with disinfection and sterilization regimen in invasive procedures rooms, ensuring safe intimate relationships - all these preventive measures will help reduce the risk of contracting viral hepatitis F.
An important condition for the successful treatment of hepatitis F and any other type of viral infection is the timely detection of virus carriers.
Postponed hepatitis undermines health and, if improperly or incompletely treated, threatens with serious complications. After a viral lesion of the liver, a person can subsequently develop
- Acute and chronic diseases of the liver and bile ducts - cholecystitis, cholangitis, stones in the gall bladder.
- Hepatic cell failure, which is accompanied by a weakening of the filtration function.
- Hepatic coma, in which there is a threat to life.
The rapid development of hepatitis F can lead to death, when an extensive lesion of the parenchymal liver tissue leads to organ failure.
Viral hepatitis is dangerous and requires careful attention to health. At the first signs of a disorder and when signs of liver dysfunction appear, you should consult a doctor to undergo a diagnosis and provide qualified medical care.