What is dangerous cytomegalovirus?
Cytomegalovirus is a fairly common type of herpes, and today it is found in more than half of the adult population, and about twenty percent of adolescents suffer from this infection.
The presence of this disease is almost immediately impossible to determine immediately, since its developmental period is rather sluggish in order to notice any manifestations.
The transferred hypothermia or severe stress can cause a surge of infection, expressed in symptoms similar in nature to a cold or acute respiratory infections, however, if you do not detect the presence of this dangerous DNA in your body, this can lead to very serious consequences. And in people with a burdened history, deaths are not uncommon.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is manifested in men and women in different ways.
What you need to know about cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus or CMV is an infectious disease of a viral nature, the causative agent of which belongs to the genus of herpes viruses, representing one of their five varieties. Currently, cytomegaly DNA is found in more than half of the people on the planet. According to statistics, among people under 20 years of age, up to 15% are infected, in adults aged 35 years and above, this figure exceeds 50%.
For this virus, as well as for others from the herpes family, latent presence in the cells of the human body is characteristic. This means that you can get infected even in infancy, because one of the methods of infection is transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy . However, it is likely that the disease will not manifest itself throughout life, being a constantly restrained immune system.
A series of factors associated with a decrease in immunity can provoke a relapse of cytomegalovirus, that is, its transition from a latent state to an acute one:
- Lack of sleep
- Severe or persistent stressful situations
- Seasonal bursts of vitamin deficiency,
- Concomitant acute or chronic diseases,
- Immunodeficiency and so on.
In other words, any factor contributing to a decrease in the protective functions of the body can trigger the exacerbation of the cytomegalovirus and cause its manifestations.
Interesting fact! According to statistics, cytomegalovirus in men is less common, provided that the representative of the stronger sex leads a healthy lifestyle. In addition, men, unlike women, are less susceptible to stress, which also plays a large role.
Viral infection information
The abbreviation CMV is an infectious disease, the origin and spread of which is the type of herpes. Speaking of statistical data, the disease develops and subsequently manifests itself in almost 50% of the adult population. Age over 35 years, the most susceptible to the disease.
Herpes is inside the cells, not manifesting itself. The problem may appear in infancy. This is due to the type of transmission of infection from mother to child when it is inside the womb.
Complications in men
Most men who are diagnosed with the virus received it in the prenatal period. With a healthy immune system, CMV does not manifest itself and does not pose a danger to a man. A person does not suspect that he is a virus carrier until the moment when the “most favored nation treatment” regime develops for the virus.
A long stay in the cold, a surge of emotions, a nervous breakdown causes an outbreak of cytomegalovirus according to the symptoms and clinical picture similar to the flu.How are CMV manifestations in men:
- chills and fever,
- enlarged and inflamed lymph nodes,
- persistent, persistent runny nose,
- pain in the muscles and joints.
CMV differs from influenza with similar external symptoms in the duration and persistence of the course.
For men, the consequence of the development of infection are diseases of the reproductive system:
- herpetic prostatitis (enlargement of the prostate gland),
- urethral inflammation
- testicular inflammation - orchitis,
- secretion of pus from the penis,
- violation of the development of germ cells, decreased erectile function,
- pain and difficulty urinating.
Oncological diseases, HIV infection, acute respiratory viral infections - factors that aggravate the infection, threatening serious consequences:
- cytomegalovirus hepatitis with damage to cells and blood vessels of the liver,
- retinitis - purulent inflammation of the retina,
- siloadenitis - inflammation of the salivary glands,
- lesions of the central nervous system.
Cytomegalovirus in men
Type 5 human herpes virus: a potential danger to all people
The history of the discovery of CMV. Cytomegalovirus was discovered by the American M.G. Smith in the middle of the 20th century in the urine of a child with cytomegaly.
The disease of “huge cells” (“cyto” - a cell, “mega” - a huge one) was the name for a pathology fatal for infants after the discovery of the German doctor M. Ribbert.
In 1881, he discovered under the microscope in the tissues of dead children pathologically swollen cells - "owl eyes."
And American scientists have proven that the symptom of “owl eyes” is caused by the human herpes virus type 5, which they called cytomegalovirus.
Important: CMV - type 5 herpes is the most common of 8 human herpes viruses.
In nature, these viruses exist in the form of virions: DNA molecules that carry propagation information and are surrounded by a shell.
A favorable environment for the propagation of cytomegalovirus are all biological fluids:
- female genital secretions,
- breast milk.
why cytomegalovirus is dangerous?
The reason for the fact that the majority of the world's population is infected with cytomegalovirus is its transmission methods and good survival in the cells of the human body.
The virus can be found in any biological tissues, mainly liquid, and therefore it is transmitted in the following ways:
- By airborne droplets (through coughing or sneezing)
- Through saliva while kissing
- In utero from mother to baby, at the time of birth or even with milk during breastfeeding,
- Sexually (a man can infect a partner through seminal fluid, like her, through discharge from the vagina and cervix)
- Through blood (any cut, scratch, blood transfusion or injection can cause infection)
- Transplacental (from mother to fetus).
It should also be understood that CMV has a very strong similarity with the cells of the salivary glands, for this reason saliva is considered the most common way of its transmission. Adults, more often become infected during a kiss, while children - in the kindergarten, using common toys. For the same reasons, it is the lips and mouth that become the localization site of the virus.
How to detect cytomegalovirus infection in men: symptoms
As a rule, after the body is infected, the cells of the disease sleep inside and begin to show their growth, if the protective membrane of the immune system decreases. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to the signs by which it can be distinguished:
- The inner lining of the mouth, nose and eyes begins to swell for no reason.
- The appearance of a rash is possible. This mainly happens in the region of the nasolabial triangle, but can also appear throughout the body.
- Joints and muscles hurt. This is due to the appearance of inflammation inside.
- Since the male body is more sensitive, pain may appear when urinating, having sex, and in some cases, inflammation of the testicles.
These are the most common signs, when they appear, it is worth contacting a specialist for an examination and prescribing the necessary treatment. The listed symptoms of CVM in men are more serious. But, there are also those that are no different from ordinary SARS. These include:
- malaise, even with the necessary amount of sleep,
- fatigue, if a person did nothing, it seems completely “broken”,
- desire for constant sleep
- runny nose
- coughing without cause.
As can be seen from the above, the symptoms are more related to SARS. But if you pay attention to the internal oral cavity and see the beginning of the inflammatory process there, then you should think about the presence of the disease.
Viral disease or influenza passes within 2 weeks. If the patient does not feel better, you should consult a doctor for an examination. The photo shows the symptoms of cytomegalovirus in adult men, without proper treatment.
Possible consequences for women
Cytomegalovirus in women is doubly dangerous. As consequences, inflammatory processes in the ovaries and genitals develop. Cervical erosion develops.
The primary symptoms of an acute form of the disease are similar to mononucleosis. A significant difference is the state of the lymph nodes. When afflicted with cytomegalovirus, they are soft and plastic, with mononucleosis they are hard.
There are conditions in which a woman’s body is particularly vulnerable:
- gestation period
- carcinogenic processes
- HIV infection.
Clinicians are of the opinion that cytomegalovirus, once in the body of a woman before conception, does not pose a danger to the fetus, no consequences are expected.
Cytomegalovirus in women
The situation changes if the infection occurred during pregnancy. With a primary infection and the absence of antibodies, the cytomegalovirus multiplies freely in the body.
In the first trimester of pregnancy, cytomegalovirus is dangerous for miscarriages, non-developing pregnancy, spontaneous abortions.
In subsequent periods, CMV pathologies of the fetus are considered as consequences of cytomegalovirus: damage to the nervous system, impaired hematopoiesis, hypoxia. Severe systemic diseases, microcephaly, hydrocephalus develop.
In cancerous processes, the body of women is weakened by the disease itself and by taking drugs that suppress the synthesis of cancer cells. For them, even a brief contact with a sick person or a carrier of the virus threatens infection.
At risk are women suffering from HIV when the immune system is not able to resist any invasion of the infection. Virus replication is growing, it penetrates into all systems, organs and tissues, causing severe complications.
In AIDS, the virus becomes generalized. With the flow of blood and lymph, viral particles enter the digestive tract, provoking the development of erosion and ulcers, and diseases of the rectum. Such stomach and intestinal dysfunctions are not amenable to any treatment.
AIDS complications of cytomegalovirus infection - progressive visual impairment - and blindness, brain damage - and dementia.
Cytomegalovirus during pregnancy: consequences for the fetus, diagnosis (analyzes)
Behavior of CMV in the body.
Cytomegalovirus enters the body through contact with infected secretions of a sick person:
- through saliva when kissing, when using common utensils, toys,
- through sexual contact,
- with blood transfusion and organ transplantation,
- with breastfeeding.
By the end of childhood, cytomegalovirus infects up to 15% of adolescents, by the middle of life - 40-50% of people, by the retirement period - up to 90% of all living on earth.
The virus invades the cells of the environment with which it penetrated: salivary glands, genitals, blood.
During the development of cytomegalovirus infection, megalocytosis occurs - an increase in the size of the affected cells.
Their contents stick together, and the entire space of the cell is filled with liquid. Infected cells swell, stop dividing, die, causing inflammation of the surrounding tissues.
And hundreds of new viruses are ready to expand their living space.
The area of cytomegalovirus infection spreads through the salivary glands to the nasopharynx, bronchi, and from the genitals to the cervix, bladder, kidneys, and cells of other internal organs.
In the blood, cytomegalovirus affects leukocytes and lymphocytes, neurons, centers of the spinal cord and brain.
Important: The main danger of cytomegaly - a disease provoked by CMV, is that its causative agent causes damage to all organs and systems of a person.
However, a healthy immune system quickly recognizes the killer and begins to fight it. Antibodies are formed with an enemy memorization program.
Then the cytomegalovirus hides in the cells of the salivary glands, in the lymph nodes and hibernates. In latent (sleeping) form, the virus is inaccessible to the immune system and remains in the body for life.
Cytomegalovirus in men - symptoms
We have already found out that the reason for the transition of the discussed virus from a sleeping state to an active one is a decrease in immunity, which can occur for a number of trifling reasons. If the virus still prevails over your immune system, you need to be able to recognize it.
The clinical picture includes the following symptoms:
- Swelling of the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes and nose,
- A rash on the skin, often in the mouth and nasolabial triangle, but a variety of manifestations are possible,
- Joint inflammation and muscle pain
- In men, there may be a lesion of the genitourinary system, painful urination, and inflammation of the testicles.
The most characteristic symptoms are listed above, in which a person can immediately suspect an exacerbation of the cytomegalovirus and consult a doctor. The disease rarely proceeds in a severe form, and, often, it may not be noticed at all.
The most common signs of cytomegalovirus look like a typical respiratory viral infection:
- General malaise
- Temperature rise,
- Runny nose
Inflammation of the salivary glands and the appearance of whitish spots on the gums are often added to the usual symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections, and this is what you should pay attention to.
Important to remember! With the usual manifestations of acute respiratory viral infections, there is no reason for concern, often cytomegalovirus goes unnoticed. But if the alleged flu or a cold dragged on for weeks, atypical symptoms appeared, you should consult a doctor and pass the appropriate tests to determine the virus.
Causes of the disease
Signs of cytomegalovirus in men appear due to a number of factors:
- Long stay in cold air, possible hypothermia.
- Minimum sleep and rest at night.
- Stress leading to the development of internal diseases. A person is constantly in tension.
- Vitamin deficiency and low intake of vitamins. Especially in the spring and summer.
- The presence of chronic and acute diseases.
- Weak immune system.
All this leads to serious violations, and causes the progression of those problems that the patient had not previously known. Please note that with a decrease in immunity, something that has not previously been cured can always manifest in the body.
The disease leads to male sexual infertility. Therefore, it is necessary to be examined for cytomegalovirus in a man when planning pregnancy.
Viral pathology can overtake women. Representatives of the stronger sex suffer less often, but only in the case of the right lifestyle.
What is dangerous cytomegalovirus?
The health of people with strong immunity, CMV does no harm. A person can live for many years without knowing the presence of this infection in the blood. However, the virus can be activated by reducing the body's defenses. Penetrating into human cells, CMV significantly increases in size and changes the DNA of healthy cells. As a result, a cytomegaly disease occurs, manifested in complications of varying severity.
What is dangerous CMV for children
For children, placental infection is most dangerous. Through the amniotic fluid, the virus enters the respiratory and digestive systems, spreading through them to the entire body.
Symptoms of an intrauterine infection include prematurity, increased bilirubin, and swallowing and sucking function. An increase in the spleen and liver, convulsions, strabismus, blindness, hearing loss, a significant decrease in the size of the skull and brain are considered as manifestations of the congenital form of infection.
The absence of symptoms does not indicate the health of the child. Under favorable conditions for the virus, a later development of the disease is possible in the form of a lag in mental and physical development, incorrectly formed teeth, myopia, deafness.
Acquired infection does not appear in the first days of life, makes itself felt in the next 1-2 months. It is characterized by mental and physical retardation, hemorrhages, convulsions, swelling of the salivary glands.
As a rule, the baby's body successfully copes with the disease. A preschool child infected with cytomegalovirus does not have any consequences. At the age of 5–6 years, the immune system of a small person stabilizes, the risk of developing cytomegaly decreases significantly.
Cytomegalovirus in blood, urine, saliva, false-positive result for cytomegalovirus
Can there be consequences after treatment
With timely and adequate treatment, compliance with all prescriptions and recommendations of a doctor, tragic consequences do not occur.
In the treatment of the acute form, a standard regimen is used using antiviral and immunostimulating drugs. At the same time, concomitant pathogenic processes are suppressed by antibiotics.
Etiotropic therapy - measures aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, is rarely used and only in cases of central nervous system lesions and in relation to patients with severe signs of immunodeficiency.
In order to avoid the transition of CMV to the generalized form, pregnant women are given human immunoglobulin intramuscularly.
Based on the ability of the cytomegalovirus to survive for a long time in the host organism, the problem is currently not resolved and requires attention from scientific and practical medicine.
Whether there may be consequences after treatment depends on the patient. Irregular sexual intercourse, unsanitary conditions, stress will lead to the return of CMV.
Cytomegalovirus detected - what to do?
Cytomegalovirus is not a sentence, millions of people who carry the infection live a full life. For all diseases of a viral nature, the most effective prevention is to strengthen the immune system. Feasible physical exercises, walking, hygiene will avoid infection or relapse of the acute form of the disease.
Are CMV carriers dangerous?
The danger of cytomegalovirus is associated with the state of human immunity.
- Fighting the immune system with CMV. In a healthy person, igM antibodies are formed within 3-8 weeks from the onset of cytomegalovirus infection to combat the pathogen - this is a latent period of the disease. Then comes the acute phase of infection - from 2 to 6 weeks. The immune system fights the active cytomegaly virus and forces it to shift to a latent form. IgG antibodies appear in the blood - carriers of information about CMV and methods of controlling it.Thus, in a healthy body, cytomegalovirus is not able to cause pathological processes and is not dangerous.
- When a CMV carrier is dangerous. Every person who has undergone a cytomegalovirus infection becomes its carrier. If the virus is disarmed and latent, the carrier is not dangerous to others. With weakening of the immunity of the carrier, a remission (resumption) of infection occurs. The virus returns to its active form and multiplies. In the saliva, urine and other secretions of such a person, many cytomegaloviruses appear that can infect other people.
The most dangerous carriers of cytomegalovirus infection are:
- for pregnant women
- for the fetus during fetal development,
- for a preschool child with an unformed immune system,
- for people with serious immunodeficiency problems.
Is cytomegalovirus dangerous?
What is the danger of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy?
Since the symptoms of the disease may not appear during the development of the infection, only blood tests for cytomegavirus will tell about the danger of the carrier to others.
They are relevant for women who are going to become mothers.
Important: Cytomegalovirus poses a mortal threat to the fetus during pregnancy.
There are several options for the behavior of cytomegalovirus in the body of pregnant women:
1. Primary infection. The risk of getting sick during pregnancy in women increases due to a natural weakening of the immune system. Primary infection with the option of active development of cytomegalovirus infection poses the greatest threat to the fetus.
In the blood of women, at the initial infection, there are antibodies (igM +) that fight against the infection, but are unable to protect the embryo from it.
In the 1st trimester, cytomegalovirus simply kills him - in most cases, a miscarriage or freezing of the embryo occurs.
In children who survived after intrauterine infection, the virus causes the following pathologies:
- congenital cytomegaly,
- epilepsy, dropsy of the brain,
- developmental delays due to underdevelopment of the brain,
- congenital deafness and blindness,
- diseases of the heart, lungs and other organs.
2. Remission of cytomegalovirus infection. With the weakening of the immune system during pregnancy, activation of the infection is possible: the cytomegalovirus awakens, which was in latent form. The course of the disease is asymptomatic, but both (igM +) and (igG +) immunoglobulins are found in the blood. Maternal antibodies (igG +) protect the fetus from intrauterine infection. Therefore, the recurrence of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy is not as dangerous as the primary infection. 98% of children in this case are born healthy.
3. The presence of igg immunoglobulin in the blood of pregnant women. The most favorable analysis for a woman who is about to become a mother is a combination of: (igM -) and (igG +). This means the absence of active cytomegalovirus infection and normal immune defense against it, which the mother passes to the embryo. The option when both immunoglobulins (igM -), (igG-) are absent is dangerous because of the risk of primary infection.
Cytomegalovirus: symptoms, treatment
Among people who are dangerous cytomegalovirus in the first place are newborns and young children. The following are methods for transmitting cytomegalovirus.
- Antenatal (intrauterine) infection in 27-30% of cases it is fatal and gives severe complications. Symptoms of a congenital disease:
- severe postpartum jaundice,
- abnormal enlargement of internal organs,
- multiple foci of inflammation,
- skin rash.
- Intranatal (during childbirth) infection occurs 2 months after birth with the following symptoms:
- lack of appetite,
- runny nose, red throat, yellowing of the skin.
- swollen lymph nodes and salivary glands.
Vaccination of a baby, if it has latent cytomegaly, can lead to damage to the nervous system, so a blood test and antiviral treatment are necessary before vaccination.
- A preschool child has a high risk of infection through contact with carriers of infection. The course of the disease - a mononucleosis-like syndrome - is similar to the symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections: temperature, runny nose, reddening of the throat. The duration of the disease (1-2 months) and its frequent relapses are a signal that cytomegalovirus causes it. The best treatment is to strengthen the immune system.
- Of particular danger is the human herpes virus type 5 for people with immunodeficiency and with artificial suppression of immunity:
- HIV infected
- patients with transplanted organs,
- people with cancer.
These patients develop a generalized type of infection: with the defeat of many organs: lungs, liver, brain, gastrointestinal tract. Comprehensive treatment is necessarily indicated for them:
- antiviral therapy: Ganciclovir, Foscarnet, etc.,
- intravenous administration of immunoglobulins that inhibit cytomegalovirus,
- vitamin therapy.
- Serious diseases are provoked by cytomegalovirus in ordinary carriers with a weakened immune system (stress, overwork, unhealthy lifestyle). Inflammation of the cervix in women and urethra in men are the most common of these symptoms.
Important: To date, there are no drugs that completely eliminate the danger that any herpevirus brings.
The best doctor is the immune system, and it is associated with a person’s lifestyle. For people leading a healthy lifestyle, cytomegalovirus is not a big danger.
How is the disease transmitted?
Its occurrence is caused by a number of factors. The virus is stable enough, therefore, in order not to receive it and does not suffer during its treatment, the following points should be avoided:
- Unprotected sex.
- Medical instruments should always be clean, so when passing tests, you should pay attention to this.
- Before planning a conception and giving birth to a mother, a mother should check her body for diseases, as this disease is transmitted from mother to fetus.
- Avoid contact with blood.
In addition to all of the above, it is worth paying attention to other transmission options:
- transmitted by coughing or sneezing,
- the kiss transmits the infection along with the incoming saliva,
- breastfeeding is especially dangerous.
The virus is similar in structure to salivary cells. That is why salivary transmission is considered one of the common methods. Localization of ulcers in this case occurs in the area of the lips and mouth.
Complications and what caused them
As already mentioned, cytomegalovirus may not manifest itself during the whole life of a person, even if the infection occurred in infancy, but with immunodeficiency conditions, which are often observed in patients with cancer, severe forms of diabetes mellitus, who underwent an organ transplant surgery, HIV infected. Any of these forms of immunodeficiency can lead to a generalization of infection, which threatens with extensive damage to internal organs and systems.
In such situations, cytomegalovirus can cause serious consequences and provoke the following diseases:
- Kidney inflammation,
- Damage to the nervous system.
Cytomegalovirus is especially dangerous for those who have undergone transplantation of internal organs, because one of its manifestations may be damage to donor tissues, followed by the development of concomitant diseases.
Routes of transmission of cytomegalovirus
In the external environment, cytomegalovirus is quite stable - it can survive for hours, and even days. You can catch it with any repeated close contact with a person whose infection is in the active phase. Kisses are infectious, common towels, dishes, hygiene products.
Babies become infected from mothers through breast milk, older children - from parents in the domestic way and from other children during games. Adults - during sex and domestic way. Rarely, with blood transfusion, organ transplantation.
The incubation period ranges from several days to several weeks.
Dangers for men
In the absence of harmful external factors (for example, working in a damp and cold room) and strong immunity, CMV is not dangerous for a man's health. The body will cope with the disease on its own by developing the necessary antibodies.
If the man’s immune system is weakened (due to acute respiratory viral infections or pneumonia, the presence of cancer, HIV infection, etc.), then a malfunction of the internal organs is possible:
- Diseases of the genitourinary system, accompanied by pain during urination.
- Pneumonia, myocarditis, encephalitis (in a critical case).
- Paralysis and death (in very rare cases).
Treatment of cytomegalovirus in men should be aimed at eliminating the inflammatory process and keeping the virus in an inactive form.
When deciding whether to undergo an examination, you need to know how cytomegalovirus affects the conception of men. Modern medicine does not stand still and now it is enough to turn to the laboratory and all the internal problems of the body will immediately become visible. The first thing to donate in the laboratory is blood, to determine the DNA of the virus. This is required to know how long it has been inside.
Diagnosis is not only to confirm the presence of symptoms, but also the appointment of the right treatment. For deeper research, they can offer:
- Particle intake of saliva, urine or blood to establish the presence of the virus. The cultural method allows you to identify its activity, and subsequently decide on drugs for a full recovery.
- IFA - the body must fight any disease. To do this, he needs antibodies. Having passed the IFA, you can find out whether they are inside and whether a person is able to withstand the disease. With the parallel presence of immunodeficiency, such an examination is not prescribed, since it is already clear that there is simply no internal struggle.
- PCR - DNA is detected. This will help you figure out how far this has gone.
With a more severe lesion or manifestation on the internal organs of symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection in men, treatment will be required from specialized specialists.
Types of infection in the body
In addition to the general symptoms and severe manifestations of the disease, separate forms of the development of a viral infection are distinguished. In each case, the characteristics of the infection are taken into account, while the symptoms and treatment of cytomegalovirus in men will also vary.
Doctors divide the principles of the development of the disease into three types:
- Periodic manifestations of the disease with minor weakening of the immune system is the most common and common scenario. In such cases, the incubation period takes up to 60 days, after which the previously described general symptoms are observed, as with SARS. During the illness, the body produces antibodies, after which the virus again returns to its latent form, and its manifestations are suppressed by the immune system.
- Congenital infection In this case, the growth and maturation of the child occurs with a certain delay in development, accompanied by a slight increase in the liver and spleen. As they grow older, these factors resolve themselves, but a man infected in infancy is more susceptible to CMV and often suffers from its manifestations.
- The first manifestation of the disease caused by a serious decrease in immunity. The mechanism of the development of the disease in this case is complicated by the fact that the body does not have antibodies to the virus and is not able to independently develop them to combat it.The solution to the problem is a long course of therapy with parallel treatment of concomitant diseases.
The course of the disease in people with normal immunity
The target of the virus is primarily the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes. Also lives in glandular tissue, multiplying in the salivary glands, prostate and pancreas. May affect nerve tissue.
The course of the disease greatly depends on the initial state of immunity. If health is excellent, symptoms of cytomegalovirus may be completely absent. But more often, the primary infection is similar to a common cold: sore throat, malaise, weakness, cough, pain in the muscles and joints, fever up to 38-39 degrees. The disease lasts 2-3 weeks and goes away on its own, after which the pathogen goes into a dormant state, being under the control of the immune system.
It is impossible to completely get rid of CMV. In a dormant state, he is out of the reach of protective forces. But in case of reactivation of the virus or new contact with it from the outside, the body will be ready for defense immediately. Antibodies that remain in the blood serum after the first time will now cope with it so effectively that a person will not notice anything, and it will be possible to establish the fact of the disease only by the results of the analyzes.
The bad news for those at risk: during a reactivation period, such a person, without knowing it, is still contagious. In Russia, 60% of the population over 6 years old are carriers, and all of them are potentially dangerous to those who cannot be faced with cytomegalovirus. Among older people, the rate of carriage reaches 91%.
What are the risks of women?
Cytomegalovirus for girls, as well as for men, is dangerous in case of reduced immunity. Infection can trigger the occurrence of various diseases:
- inflammation of the female genital organs,
- pleurisy, pneumonia,
- intestinal inflammation
- neurological diseases (in extreme cases - encephalitis).
The most dangerous CMV for women during the period of bearing a child. Especially if the infection occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy. The virus can infect the fetus, and this will lead to the death of the embryo. At a later stage of pregnancy, the infection can have a negative effect on the formation of the baby’s internal organs. Therefore, it is important to check for infections when planning pregnancy. In the presence of cytomegalovirus and antibodies to it in the girl’s body, a favorable outcome is most likely before pregnancy (the child will be a passive carrier of CMV).
Types and stages of infection
The signs of the described illness, regardless of whether the disease appeared in the male or female, are the same. In medicine, there are three stages of development:
- The manifestation is periodic. This is the most common situation. With a decrease in immunity, the spread occurs throughout the body. The incubation period lasts for 60 days. When the disease progresses, antibodies are produced, and the virus returns to its original form.
- Infection from birth. At first glance, nothing special happens, but the child grows with deviations and a delay in development. Possible increase in internal organs: liver and spleen. Gradually, the listed factors disappear, but if the infection occurred in infancy, then at a more mature age, the male half suffers from it more and more.
- A sharp decrease in immunity. It can occur if the body has not begun to produce antibodies. It is possible to recover in this case, but serious therapy is required. In addition, it is necessary to make and treatment of all related components.
How to recognize a virus in the body
Modern diagnostic methods can not only detect cytomegalovirus in the human body.In laboratory conditions, you can get an idea of the activity of the infection at the current stage of development, understand the nature of its origin, approximately find out how long a person has been infected with it, determine the DNA of the virus.
Diagnostic measures are carried out not only to confirm the fact of infection. They are mainly required in cases where the patient needs treatment. In order to detect the most effective methods of control, the following measures may be required:
- Cultural research - involves the collection of particles of saliva, urine, ejaculate and blood in order to establish the presence of the virus in the body. This method also makes it possible to determine the activity of the virus at a given moment, which is especially important for understanding how it reacts to treatment or in what condition it is.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - is used to detect antibodies produced by the body to fight the disease, respectively, the person’s ability to resist the virus. With immunodeficiency, this study is not prescribed as unnecessary, because it is clear that immunity is not able to resist.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - allows you to identify and determine the DNA of the virus, which is especially effective to establish the degree of its activity, as well as to clarify the infection process caused by it.
In addition to the studies described, depending on the lesions of a particular organ, the patient may need to visit specialized specialists, for example, a urologist or dermatologist. In addition to combating cytomegalovirus, a narrow-profile professional will tell you how best to deal with acquired diseases.
Many parents wonder if cytomegalovirus is dangerous for a child. It depends on the type of infection and the age of the baby. The most dangerous consequences are detected with a congenital form of the disease in a child up to 1 year old:
If the baby acquired the virus during the first year of life, then the disease goes away in a milder form. Symptoms are similar to ARVI:
- runny nose
- swollen lymph nodes
In older children, the disease is most often asymptomatic. Sometimes drowsiness and fever may appear. A disease in an acquired form is extremely rarely a complication of a child’s health.
How to treat cytomegalovirus in men
After the diagnosis is made, the patient is prescribed treatment. Selected drugs depend on the severity and depth of infection. Prescribed medications to combat the disease, as well as funds to maintain the immunity of various body systems.
One of the new drugs is Prostatilen AC. It is available in the form of candles, in the amount of 5 pieces per pack. The drug stimulates the production of active sperm, and also allows you to solve problems such as prostatitis. The dosage is prescribed by a doctor, but, as a rule, it does not exceed 1 suppository per day.
Prostatilene AC has contraindications.
- It is forbidden to use for children under 18 years of age.
- The response of the body to the contained substances.
- Rectal inflammation also requires caution.
Remember that you should not self-medicate. It is necessary to visit a specialist for advice, diagnosis and the appointment of the right course of drugs.
All modern methods of treating cytomegalovirus in men are aimed at combating the symptoms and manifestations of infection. This allows weakened immunity to again prevail over the virus, translating it into a latent state.
If cytomegalovirus was detected in the human body, but does not cause any harm, it is considered to be “sleeping” (immunity suppresses it). Treatment in such cases is not prescribed.Moreover, even if there are signs of the disease, expressed in the form of an acute respiratory viral infection, treatment is also not required. The immune system is given time to develop antibodies and self-suppress cytomegalovirus. The necessary maximum in such cases involves the relief of symptoms of SARS, that is, the removal of puffiness, the elimination of fever, cough and other measures inherent in ordinary cold treatment.
The need for drug therapy arises in people with such manifestations of infection:
- Protracted manifestations of acute respiratory viral infections or acute respiratory infections with complications,
- Impaired vision and hearing
- Hepatitis of any type and severity,
The decision on the need for suppression of cytomegalovirus is always made by the attending physician on the basis of the obtained diagnostic data and the collected history. The basis of this treatment for men is antiviral therapy called ganciclovir. With especially acute manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection, more drastic measures are required - the introduction of this drug intravenously. In this case, the medicine has not so much a prophylactic effect as a therapeutic effect.
You cannot take this medication on your own, as it should be prescribed by an experienced specialist who is involved in your treatment. The fact is that the medicine has a number of serious side effects, among which the main is the inhibition of hematopoietic function.
In general, it is better not to treat cytomegalovirus, and not to prevent its exacerbations. To do this, you must always maintain your immunity, leading a healthy lifestyle, eat right, exercise, avoid hypothermia, stress and more. In such cases, you may never encounter the active manifestations of the disease, your immunity will successfully suppress it throughout life.
The methods used by our grandmothers are largely effective, and you should not neglect them. Treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in men using folk methods is not possible. All traditional medicine in this case is aimed at increasing immunity.
- The need to visit the bath. There are limitations - cancer and heart disease.
- Quenching, dousing, being outdoors in the cold season.
- Occupation with sports exercises. It is advisable that sports become a daily compulsory program.
- Consumption of foods high in vitamins.
It is possible to use the herbal preparations sold in the pharmacy - rose hips, licorice root. Such funds do not have contraindications, therefore, health can be maintained using this method. According to the advice of sick patients, the "Collection of Father George" helps well. It contains a herbal collection that has high impact effectiveness. It is equally useful to drink it with herpes.
Cytomegalovirus in people with immunodeficiency
In all pregnant women, the body intentionally weakens the immune system - so it protects itself from the fact that the fetus can be mistaken for a foreign object. Primary infection during the gestation period is especially dangerous for the baby, but the mother may still have health consequences.
In some conditions, weakening of immunity is prescribed by doctors: autoimmune diseases, conditions after organ transplantation, chemotherapeutic treatment for oncological pathology.
And those infected with HIV (AIDS) know that they have to be afraid of any foreign microbes.
For all these people, cytomegalovirus infection is particularly dangerous. Complications can be serious:
- inflammation of the liver tissue (hepatitis), including fulminant, entailing a failure of the function of an organ with rapidly progressive liver failure,
- retinal inflammation, which leads to blindness without treatment,
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon (viral colitis),
- pneumonia (pneumonia),
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the esophagus (viral esophagitis),
- inflammation of the white and gray matter of the brain (encephalitis) or spinal cord (myelitis), inflammation of the meninges (viral meningitis), inflammation of nerve fibers (polyneuropathy), auditory nerve neuritis, etc.
Without treatment, these conditions can pose a danger to life and health, and cause irreversible processes. In such cases, antiviral drugs are used as a preventive measure. Treatment of cytomegalovirus is carried out with valganciclovir, ganciclovir or cidofovir. Be sure to constantly monitor the titer (number) of antibodies and viral load. They also conduct a course of immunostimulating therapy, prescribe vitamins, immunomodulators (interferon is most often used). Even during pregnancy, the potential risk from prescribing is lower than the risk associated with intrauterine infection of the baby.
Most women first experience CMV before conception. If this fact is known reliably - you can not be especially afraid of it. In the case of reactivation of the infection during the gestation period, the risk of its transmission from mother to child is 1%, and the risk of pathologies in the fetus is 0.1%. Yes, the numbers are non-zero, but against the background of other dangers, these probabilities are not serious.
If you are planning a baby, or just thinking about it, or even just be among the women of childbearing age with a constant sex life - check in advance if you have antibodies to cytomegalovirus. To do this, it is enough to pass a single analysis for latent infections. Save the result.
The most unfavorable is the primary infection of a woman during pregnancy. Then the virus is transmitted to the baby in 40% of cases, and the risk of pathologies - 9%.
On average, with a congenital form of cytomegalovirus infection, one child is born for 150 newborns. 80% of these children do not have severe symptoms of cytomegalovirus. But the absence of symptoms does not protect against long-term effects.
The outcome depends on the period at which the infection occurred. In the first trimester, cytomegalovirus is one of the common causes of a frozen or undeveloped pregnancy. The reason is anomalies in the development of the fetus, incompatible with life. The body itself prevents the birth of a seriously ill child. If this protective mechanism fails, it is possible that a child is born with developmental abnormalities, the severity of which can fluctuate widely. The most serious pathologies are the lack of a brain (anencephaly), microcephaly (an abnormally small head), etc.
Congenital cytomegalovirus in children is also the cause of jaundice, skin rashes, viral pneumonia, and seizures. Possible weight loss at birth, intrauterine growth retardation, convulsive syndrome, blindness, deafness, mental retardation. In the absence of serious illnesses, health problems can occur later in life. Children who have had a congenital CMV infection often have problems with coordination, learning ability, and lag behind their peers.
Since the cytomegalovirus igg in men does not manifest itself for a long time, it can cause complications, the treatment of which will take more than one week. One of the most terrible complications is the appearance of immunodeficiency. It can appear in patients with cancer, AIDS, diabetes. Regardless of the form in which a decrease in immunity occurs, it is not so easy to recover.
- heart attack
- kidney inflammation,
- diseases of the nervous system.
Particularly dangerous is CMV in men who have had to undergo organ transplants. Because of it, the transplanted organ may not take root, the accompanying tissues will begin to rot, which will lead to severe consequences for humans.
Given the fact that the disease is extremely rare and lethargic, without special signs, the following internal organs may begin to hurt:
- adrenal glands
- damage to the nervous central system.
For the stronger sex, the development of orchitis is dangerous. As a result of it, a decrease in sperm quality occurs, infertility gradually develops. Therefore, a more crude development cannot be allowed.
Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus
The basis for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The method is based on the detection of specific antibodies in the blood produced by the body in response to invasion of the pathogen. The more aggressive the disease, the higher the titer of antibodies.
In the acute phase, an increase in antibody titer occurs due to class M immunoglobulins. The presence of anti-CMV-IgM in the blood serum indicates that the virus is in the active phase. The body remains from 1 to 3 months after treatment.
In chronic infections, the titer of antibodies to cytomegalovirus class G - anti-CMV-IgG increases.
Doctors recommend testing immediately if symptoms of ARVI occur in women in position. In the presence of a high titer of immunoglobulins M, prophylactic treatment with antiviral drugs is performed. This strategy helps prevent severe complications in the fetus.
We described above why it is so important to establish whether a primary infection occurred during or before pregnancy. Not everyone gives an analysis in advance for latent infections. Bearing lasts 9 months, while class M immunoglobulins are not present in the blood for long. In such cases, an ELISA is performed for the avidity of IgG to cytomegalovirus. The method allows you to specify the timing of infection and the activity of the virus. Its principle is based on the “strength” of antibodies. The longer the microbe is present in the body, the greater the immune system's ability to resist the disease. Over time, antibodies improve their ability to bind the pathogen. And vice versa, new, still “green” antibodies do not fight the virus too effectively.
Avidity is displayed as the percentage of highly avian antibodies to CMV. The higher the%, the longer the microbial penetration occurred. High avidity (more than 85-90%) eliminates the primary infection over the past 3 months.
A more accurate, but more expensive, method for diagnosing CMV using PCR (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) is also used. For the study, saliva is excreted from the genitals, swabs from the bronchi, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood serum. Pregnant women take cervical mucus. The method is based on the determination of pathogen genetic information in samples. The sequence of genes in each bacterium or virus is unique, like the pattern of the retina. In the presence of genetic information characteristic of the pathogen, the method allows you to determine the fact of infection (qualitative analysis), the approximate amount of the pathogen in the body and its degree of activity / replication (viral load, quantitative analysis).
Features of development and effect on the body
Cytomegalovirus is a rather large virus (150-190 nm). Thanks to this, CMV got its name, literal translation, “giant cell”. The virus enters a healthy cell and multiplies its size. The cell content is significantly reduced (sticks together), and the entire space is filled with fluid. Infected cells become large, stop dividing, and die. In this case, inflammation of the surrounding tissues occurs.
Depending on the way CMV enters the human body, the degree of influence on internal systems depends:
- if the virus penetrated through saliva, then the nasopharynx and bronchi suffer,
- with damage through the genitals, the infection penetrates the bladder, kidneys, uterus,
- in the blood, CMV infects leukocytes, lymphocytes, and then the centers of the spinal cord and brain.
However, a strong immune system quickly detects the virus and begins to fight it, forming antibodies. After that, the virus goes into a sleeping form and remains in the human body forever.
To adhere to preventive measures, it is not necessary to go to the clinic for advice. It is worth remembering what cannot be done and what can be done.
- Wear someone else’s underwear, whether clean or not.
- Eating from clean dishes - do not eat in dubious establishments and in unverified places.
- Hands should be washed with soap at regular intervals.
- The house should be clean, so as not to give microbes a chance to develop.
Household infection with cytomegalovirus infection in men is extremely rare, but you should not write it off. In addition, you can not have sex if there is no confidence in a partner. When passing tests in the laboratory, pay attention to the sterility of the instruments.
Only a specialist is able to confirm or deny the presence of infection in the body, after a thorough multilateral examination. Only after making sure of the presence of the virus in the body, competent measures will be taken to eliminate it. Any disease is easier to prevent than subsequently treated for it. Be careful, take care of yourself and your own health!
Prevention is relevant only to people with immunodeficiencies and pregnant women without class G antibodies. They will have to:
- Take particular care of hygiene. For example, washing your hands is not as usual, but very carefully, closing the tap through a napkin and grasping the handle in public places with gloves on.
- Avoid contact with children. They are contagious in the first place.
- Refuse intimacy and even kisses if the partner is immune to CMV. At any time, he may have a reactivation of the virus, and then it will become contagious.
Cytomegaly is a disease that is caused by a cytomegalovirus. It brings a lot of discomfort during its activation. The danger of this infection lies in the fact that it is impossible to completely recover from it. In order to protect yourself from its ingestion, you should know how cytomegalovirus is transmitted. Let us dwell on this issue.
What are dangerous carriers
A source of infection of a cytomegalovirus can be a patient with an active stage of the disease, and a person without special signs of infection. In a healthy body, antibodies develop after infection. This stage is called the latent period of the disease and lasts 4-8 weeks.
The virus carrier is most dangerous during the incubation period of the disease, which begins after the latent stage and lasts from 15 to 60 days. During this period, the patient develops symptoms similar to ARVI:
- high body temperature,
- runny nose
- skin rash
- malaise and fatigue.
At this stage, CMV multiplies very actively and the patient is dangerous to others. You can get infected through saliva and other secretions. However, this risk of infection extends to specific populations. First of all, people with reduced immunity are at risk:
- girls and their baby during pregnancy,
- preschool children,
- cancer patients after chemotherapy courses,
- people with HIV
- patients after transplantation of donor organs.
For the rest of the population, carriers of cytomegalovirus do not pose a great threat.
The consequences of the virus after recovery
With timely treatment of CMV, significant effects on human health are not observed. In the acute form of herpes, the doctor usually prescribes antiviral and immunostimulating agents to the patient.If cytomegaly is asymptomatic, then there is no need for treatment.
Summing up, we can say that cytomegalovirus is dangerous for people with weakened immunity. Because so far there are no medications to combat the disease. But a person can always strengthen his health: play sports, harden, take vitamins in a complex. Strong immunity is the best cure for infections.
Intimacy and Kisses
Unprotected sexual contact is the source of many diseases of a viral or infectious nature. Many people are aware of sexually transmitted infections. For example, a cytomegalovirus is diagnosed in one of the partners - how is it transmitted to another person?
This process occurs as a result of sperm entering the mucous membranes of the vagina. If a woman is infected, then CMV cells are found in her vaginal mucus. But you should know that sexual contact in a condom can not completely protect a healthy partner from infection. They are also infected with cytomegalovirus during anal or oral sex. Therefore, it is required to carefully and responsibly approach the choice of a sexual partner.
Sometimes cytomegalovirus is transmitted by contact, because viruses are also found in saliva. Close contact with a sick person, kisses with him can lead to infection.
This type of infection is characterized in many ways, although it occurs quite rarely:
- use of personal hygiene items for the patient (towel, toothbrush),
- conversation with an affected person, provided that he is sick and constantly coughs,
- use of common utensils.
That is, living under the same roof with a person who is diagnosed with cytomegalovirus poses a risk of infection. The saliva of a sick person poses a risk of damage to healthy family members. Therefore, caution should be exercised in contact with the patient, as well as a preventive examination for the detection of cytomegalovirus in the body.
What methods can a child get infected with cytomegalovirus? This process occurs in utero, that is, the infection enters the baby's body through the placenta or at the time of natural birth. This disease is especially dangerous for the fetus and newborn. The risk group includes the following category of children:
- unborn children, the lesion occurs through the placenta in utero, provided that the mother is sick,
- newborn babies with an unformed immune system,
- children diagnosed with HIV infection.
Intrauterine damage to CMV is a danger to the baby in its further development. An infected child is susceptible to various pathological processes in the nervous, digestive, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems.
The main symptoms of cytomegaly in children are: prematurity, visual disturbance (manifested as strabismus), jaundice, lack of sucking reflex.
Over time, other ailments are added:
- sleep disturbance,
- constant fatigue
- swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck,
- pain in the muscles and joints,
- a slight increase in body temperature.
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the most dangerous. For this reason, the conception of children should be approached with all seriousness. Before this process, the pair must go through all the necessary examinations and pass the tests. This will help to detect a pathological virus in a timely manner, and then take the necessary measures in order to give birth to healthy offspring.
Women who become infected are also likely to be at risk.If the baby was born healthy, then there is an increased possibility of its defeat during breastfeeding - the disease can be transmitted with mother's milk. It is also contagious.
The disease that appeared in the early stages of pregnancy most often leads to fetal death or to significant deviations in its development. The appearance of cytomegalovirus in the third trimester can cause such pathologies in an infected baby:
- total or partial loss of hearing or vision,
- mental retardation,
- cerebral paralysis.
It is better for infected women after giving birth to a healthy baby to completely stop breastfeeding, despite the fact that it is most useful for a newborn. In this way, a newly made mother will protect her baby from the virus entering his body.
Since this infection is active in the blood, a healthy person can become infected through the patient through it. If contaminated blood gets on the wound, scratch, or other damage to the skin, it will infect a healthy person.
How else does a cytomegalovirus infection occur through blood? The risk of infection is manifested in the following ways:
- With a blood transfusion. This procedure is absolutely safe. But the negligence of specialists can harm healthy people. Blood intended for transfusion should be checked for viruses and other pathologies.
- Organ transplantation. Primary infection with cytomegalovirus can be observed during transplantation of kidneys, liver, heart and other vital organs. The disease may appear in such cases after a long period of time. Active development of the infection begins in people with immunodeficiency. Typically, cytomegaly accompanies a patient infected with HIV.
- Non-sterile items during medical procedures. These include droppers, syringes and other medical instruments. If these items are reused in violation of disinfection rules, the risk of infection in a healthy person increases.
In order to protect himself from the ingestion of this virus into the body by the hematologic route, a person should contact positive clinics in verified clinics. Also, one of the safety methods is the vigilance of a potential patient. That is, at the time of medical procedures (injections, droppers), a person is obliged to control this process for the use of disposable medical instruments.
A variety of methods of infection with cytomegalovirus is due to the fact that the patient has the infection in saliva, sperm, vaginal secretion, urine, blood, breast milk, and tears. That is why the defeat of healthy people can occur with any direct contact with the patient at a short distance.
A person sometimes does not suspect an acquired pathology. Since there are not always obvious symptoms of cytomegaly. In such situations, it poses a danger to loved ones.
But you should know that cytomegalovirus infection does not always pose a significant danger to those around the infected person. The most dangerous person is during an exacerbation.
Who is at risk
Persons who are most susceptible to infection are:
- People who change partners too often. A promiscuous sexual life is one of the main factors of infection with cytomegalovirus, since this disease is easily transmitted through sperm and vaginal secretion. That is why it is required with all responsibility to approach the choice of a sexual partner. After all, the infection has no external manifestations. In addition, frequent changes in sexual partners can lead to more serious diseases.
- Drug addicts.This group of people does not pay due attention to the used syringes. Most often, the drug administration procedure takes place using one common tool. A reusable syringe can transmit cytomegalovirus to other people.
For this reason, cytomegalovirus infection is widespread in countries and areas with low living standards. That is, it concerns most often neglected sections of the population.
With such groups of people it is better to limit close communication or completely eliminate it. In this way, everyone will protect themselves from infection not only by cytomegalovirus, but also by other dangerous diseases.
Cytomegalovirus in men: symptoms of CMV infection and treatment
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is classified as a herpes virus. Penetrating into the human body, it provokes cytomegaly - a pathological condition characterized by an increase in cells containing intracellular inclusions.
In most paintings, the cytomegalovirus in men is in a latent state (latent form). The etiology of activation is due to a sharp decrease in immune status during respiratory and colds, stressful situations, and nervous disorders.
So, consider cytomegalovirus infection, causes and symptoms in men.
Symptoms of CMV in the body
After infection with cytomegalovirus, the transmission routes of which are manifold, clinical symptoms do not appear immediately. During the first month, the affected person may not suspect CMV in his body. But after a patient’s time, such ailments are gradually observed:
- nausea, sometimes leading to vomiting,
- jumps in blood pressure,
- general weakness of the body, chronic fatigue,
- fast overwork
- copious salivation
- the appearance of inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system.
Over time, a patient with a cytomegalovirus infection can begin degenerative changes and inflammatory processes of internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and lungs.
Cytomegalovirus may not make itself felt for a long period. This applies to people with normal functioning of the immune system.
Types of infection in men
In medical practice, various forms of cytomegalovirus infection are distinguished. Doctors distinguish three variants of the course of pathology, which differ significantly in clinical manifestations and treatment methods.
CMV in men is of the following types:
- A disease that develops as a result of a violation of the human immune system. The latent abnormal process is about 60 days. During this period, various symptoms are revealed - a febrile condition, general malaise, pain in the muscles and joints. The body quickly copes with the infection on its own, in other words, it starts the process of self-medication. No drug treatment is required,
- Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in men. Infection with the herpes virus occurs even in the period of intrauterine development. In most paintings, a child is born sick - the liver and spleen increase in size, there is a delay in development, various pathologies of internal organs and systems are diagnosed,
- CVM is an infection that manifests itself in a decrease in the functioning of the immune system. Most often, this type of disease is found in patients with HIV infection, when the body cannot independently produce antibodies. It is necessary to treat, it requires the support of the whole body.
Fact: after infection, the cytomegalovirus remains in the body for life. It is not possible to completely get rid of it, but it can be controlled with the help of drugs, preventing the activation of the disease.
CMV or the fifth type of herpes virus is widespread, due to the high degree of contagion. The source of infection is any person in whose body there is an infection.
The virus has the ability to be transmitted by air and droplets. For example, when a healthy and sick person is in the same room at the same time, the probability of infection of the first is over 90%.
Infection occurs with close contact:
The virus can enter the body through a blood transfusion. However, these cases are single, because the biological fluid goes through many stages of testing for viral and infectious diseases.
Important: in most cases, men become infected during sexual contact with a virus carrier, since all liquid substances in the body contain DNA with a cytomegaly pathogen.
Some men have a congenital infection. Infection is carried out during labor, when the child passes through the birth canal. If the mother suffered a pathology before conception, then there is a certain probability that the baby will synthesize the desired concentration of antibodies to the infection.
When a woman becomes infected while carrying a child, the consequences are unpredictable - starting from weak immunity in the baby and ending with various anomalies in the development of the newborn.
Symptoms of CMV in men
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus in men, unlike women, appear only in the presence of provoking factors. These include severe exhaustion, chronic stress, nervous disorders, respiratory diseases, colds, etc.
When the virus activates, the symptoms are as follows:
- Fever, severe chills,
- Severe headache
- A significant increase in body temperature,
- Nasal sinus congestion, nasal discharge,
- Skin rashes all over the body,
- The lymph nodes increase in size,
- Inflammatory processes in the joints, which is accompanied by pain.
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection in men resemble signs of acute respiratory diseases, so often patients try to treat themselves without consulting a medical specialist.
For information, similar pathologies can be visually distinguished: the symptoms of a cold illness lasts no more than two weeks, and with cytomegalovirus infection, symptoms are observed from 4 to 6 weeks.
From the moment a virus enters the body, a man becomes infectious. This pathological condition persists for three years.
The absence of treatment leads to various complications - inflammation of the testicles and bladder, urethra, etc. A prolonged course leads to pleurisy, encephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, and organic disorders of the central nervous system.
The virus in some cases causes brain paralysis, which ends in the death of a person.
Alternative treatment involves the use of folk remedies that help strengthen the immune system and increase the protective functions of the body. They are used together with medications prescribed by your doctor.
Alternative methods for the treatment of CMV in men:
- Mix in equal proportions the crushed licorice rhizome, the root of the penny and left-handed, alder cones, pharmacy chamomile and a string. One tablespoon of collection per 250 ml of hot water, insist for several hours. Take 60-70 ml 4 times a day, the course of treatment is two weeks.
- Take 50 g of currant and raspberry leaves, the same number of medicinal plants - oregano, wormwood, thyme, coltsfoot, plantain. Add 50 g of bird cherry fruit and the same amount of licorice root to the mixture. Cooking, as in the first embodiment. Take 100 ml three times a day, therapy for 14 days.
- Grate a sweet apple on a coarse grater, add 100 g of linden honey to it. Mix. Mixture insist the day.Before each meal, eat one tablespoon. Therapeutic course of 20 days. The recipe is not suitable if there is a history of an allergic reaction to beekeeping products.
It is worth knowing: conservative / alternative therapy is focused not on the destruction of the herpes virus, but on strengthening the immune system of men and translating the pathogen into a latent state.
Direct preventive medicine measures have not been developed. Doctors recommend twice a year to undergo a course of therapy to increase immunity, systematically temper the body, sleep at least eight hours a day and have a good rest. Against the background of strong immunity, cytomegalovirus does not pose a threat to health, does not reduce the quality of life.
Symptoms and treatment of cytomegalovirus in men and possible consequences of CMV infection
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an infectious disease (cytomegaly) caused by infection of the body with one of the types of herpes (type 5). Carriers of the pathogen are considered more than 50% of the world's population.
After infection with a cytomegalovirus infection, men do not always have symptoms indicating the presence of a pathogenic agent in the body.
With a sufficiently strong immunity, the disease does not manifest itself throughout life.
In what ways does CMV enter the male body?
According to medical statistics, the likelihood of becoming infected with cytomegalovirus increases as a person grows older. The following methods of its transmission are distinguished:
- across the placenta
- during childbirth,
- during lactation through breast milk,
- with blood transfusion,
- through surgical instruments
- during unprotected intercourse,
- airborne droplet (mainly through a kiss).
Cytomegalovirus in men occurs with the same frequency as in women. This is because the most common way to transmit the infection is unprotected intercourse. Also, infection of men with cytomegalovirus often occurs with kisses, sneezing, and intrauterine development. It has been established that in the carrier of the pathogen DNA of the latter are found in all fluids contained in the body. As in the case of other types of herpes, CMV in men develops against the background of a weakened immune system. Cytomegaly is caused by:
Also, infection of men with cytomegalovirus often occurs with kisses, sneezing, and intrauterine development.
It has been established that in the carrier of the pathogen DNA of the latter are found in all fluids contained in the body.
As in the case of other types of herpes, CMV in men develops against the background of a weakened immune system. Cytomegaly is caused by:
Infectious disease requires a comprehensive and timely therapeutic intervention. This is especially true of cases of primary infection of men in adulthood. A healthy body does not have antibodies to the virus, and therefore the disease becomes aggravated during an exacerbation. This happens when the immune system is not active enough.
Cytomegalovirus in men
What are the symptoms of CMV in men?
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus in men are determined depending on the state of immunity. More often, the disease manifests itself as an ARVI. In this case, the following signs of CMV disease are noted:
- general weakness
- coughing fits
- runny nose
The characteristic symptoms of cytomegalovirus in men include:
- swelling of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, eyes, sinuses,
- skin rashes (usually localized in the region of the nasolabial triangle),
- muscle pain,
- joint inflammation
- enlarged cervical and axillary lymph nodes,
An exacerbation of type 5 herpes in a man provokes inflammation of the salivary glands and dysfunction of the genitourinary system, which manifests itself in the form of painful urination. Also, the course of the disease is characterized by a lesion of the oral cavity with white plaque.
In case of exacerbation of the congenital form of cytomegalovirus, a slight increase in the liver and spleen is possible. However, such phenomena are diagnosed mainly in children.
Features of cytomegalovirus are that these symptoms worry the patient for a long period of time (several months). This disease is different from SARS. If such symptoms are found, you should consult a doctor and carry out appropriate therapy for herpes in men.
In men, cytomeglaovirus begins to be treated after infection in the body is detected. For this, the following diagnostic methods are used:
- Cultural research. The doctor collects fluids (urine, saliva, blood), with the help of which he determines the presence of the pathogen in the body. This cytomegalovirus test is sometimes performed several times to check how the infection responds to treatment.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The method allows you to identify specific antibodies that the body produces in response to exposure to herpes type 5. ELISA is not used in cases where the virus has infected a person with immunodeficiency.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is used to detect a strain of the virus. Also, using PCR, it is determined when the infection occurred, and the current state of the infection (exacerbation, latent course).
If the virus infects internal organs, additional studies are prescribed and consultations are conducted with specialized specialists.
Cytomegalovirus Igg and Igm. ELISA and PCR for cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus Avidity
Positive cytomegalovirus IgG - what does it mean?
How is cytomegalovirus manifested and treated in men
Cytomegalovirus in men is common, because the infection refers to sexually transmitted diseases. For a long time, the pathogen may be in an inactive state and not manifest itself in any way, as a result of which a person may not be aware of the disease.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in men is common because the infection is a sexually transmitted disease.
Methods of infection
Cytomegalovirus infection can occur in several ways. The most common transmission route is sexual, when infection occurs from woman to man and vice versa.
This is due to the fact that the virus is found in large quantities in all biological fluids of the human body, including sperm, vaginal discharge, etc.
This increases the likelihood of transmission of the disease.
Other causes of cytomegalovirus infection include intrauterine infection of the fetus, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and airborne droplets.
The most common mode of transmission of cytomegalovirus is through sex, when infection occurs from woman to man and vice versa.
Therapy of cytomegalovirus infection should be carried out in accordance with the doctor's prescription. Only a specialist is able to develop a treatment regimen with which you can remove the clinical manifestations of the disease and prevent the development of complications, because the virus remains in the human body throughout life, becoming more active when favorable conditions occur.
There is no specific remedy for sexually transmitted diseases such as cytomegalovirus. An important role in preventing infection is played by an orderly sexual life and the use of personal protective equipment (condoms).
Consequences and Complications
Latent cytomegalovirus infection does not appear in any way, as a result of which a person may not know that he is sick and infect his sexual partner.
The development of clinical manifestations is possible only in the case of a weak immune system. Cytomegalovirus can cause adverse effects and complications for some categories of the population.
The risk group includes:
- HIV infected people
- cancer patients
- persons who have undergone organ transplantation.
For debilitated patients, cytomegalovirus is extremely dangerous due to the high probability of damage to other organs and the development of complications.
Most often, disorders of the digestive tract develop. Abdominal pain, flatulence, traces of blood in the stool appear. With lung damage, pneumonia or pleurisy develops. When he is involved in the pathological process of the liver, hepatitis, possibly even inflammation of the membranes of the brain.
What else to read How cytomegalovirus infection occurs